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VIETNAM
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Hanoi

Society

State structure

Political Structure of VietnamPhoto:Trangtranmy Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International no changes made

Vietnam is a one-party state. After the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1975, the Communist Party (CP) is the only allowed party, thus dominating political life. There are inevitably close links between the Party and the civil service. The main political body of the Communist Party is the Politburo, which has 19 members. It can issue decrees that in fact have the status of law. Yet the power of the Politburo has declined sharply in recent years.

A "balancing act" has emerged, as it were, between Party, government and parliament. Politburo members are elected from parliament, the 450-member National Assembly ("Quoc Hoi"), which meets twice a year and is elected for a five-year term. The candidates of the National Assembly are nominated by the mass organizations and elected in "free elections". Every Vietnamese belongs to and of the mass organizations: man, woman, youth, farmer, worker, intellectual, civil servant.

Until recently, the task of the National Assembly was limited to approving legislation initiated by the Party and the Politburo, but it now plays an increasingly important role in Vietnamese politics. For example, it has the right to appoint and dismiss the president, the vice president, the prime minister and the deputy prime ministers. An important task is also the appointment of ministers and chairmen of state councils, who are usually members of the CP.

Day-to-day management is in the hands of a government (State Council) consisting of the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Ministers, a Council of Ministers and other members. The head of state is the president, who is elected by and from the members of the National Assembly, to whom he is also accountable. The president's term of office is five years and he is, among other things, Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.

Part of the decision-making is decentralized to provinces, districts and communes. Local government (People's Committees) plays a very important role at these levels.

Vietnam is divided into more than 50 provinces ("tinh"); the urban areas of Hanoi, Haiphong and Ho Chi Minh City are under the direct authority of the central government. For the current political situation see chapter history.

Administrative division

Vietnam administrative divisionPhoto:TUBS Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

provincecapitalpopulationarea
An GiangLong Xuyen1.933.0003.424 km2
Bac CanBac Can240.0004.796 km2
Bac GiangBac Giang1.380.0003.817 km2
Bac LieuBac Lieu722.0002.485 km2
Bac NinhBac Ninh885.000797 km2
Ba Ria-Vung TauVung Tau660.0001.957 km2
Ben TreBen Tre1.310.0002.247 km2
Binh DinhOui Nhon1.375.0006.076 km2
Binh DuongThu Dau Mhot595.0002.718 km2
Binh PhuocDong Phu490.0006.814 km2
Binh ThuanPhan Thiet860.0007.992 km2
Ca MauCa Mau1.000.0005.204 km2
Can ThoCan Tho1.782.0002.951 km2
Cao BangCao Bang626.0008.445 km2
Dac LacBuon Ma Thuot1.175.00019.800 km2
Da NangDa Nang627.000942 km2
Dong NaiBien Hoa1.765.0005.864 km2
Dong ThapSa Dec1.465.0003.276 km2
Gia LaiPleiku740.00015.662 km2
Ha GiangHa Giang521.0007.831 km2
Hai DuongHai Duong1.625.0001.661 km2
Ha NamHa Nam775.000827 km2
Ha TavHa Dong2.230.0002.147 km2
Ha TinhHa Tinh1.295.0006.054 km2
Hoa BinhHoa Binh715.0001.780 km2
Hung YenHung Yen1.040.000895 km2
Khanh HoaNha Trang925.0005.258 km2
Kien GiangRach Gia1.330.0006.243 km2
Kon TumKon Tum250.0009.934 km2
Lai ChauLai Chau505.00017.131 km2
Lam DongDa Lat745.00010.173 km2
Lang SonLang Son675.0008.187 km2
Lao CaiLao Cai540.0008.050 km2
Long AnTan An1.230.0004.338 km2
Nam DinhNam Dinh1.820.0001.669 km2
Nghe AnVinh2.685.00016.381 km2
Ninh BinhNinh Binh840.0001.388 km2
Ninh ThuanPhan Rang-Thap Cham450.0003.430 km2
Phu ThoPhu Tho1.195.0003.465 km2
Phu YenTuv Hoa710.0005.278 km2
Ouang BinhDong Hoi740.0007.984 km2
Ouang NamTam Ky, Hoi An1.290.00010.406 km2
Ouang NgaiOuang Ngai1.150.0005.856 km2
Ouang NinhHong Gai890.0005.939 km2
Ouang TriDong Ha521.0004.592 km2
Soc TrangSoc Trang1.175.0003.191 km2
Son LaSon La780.00014.210 km2
Tav NinhTav Ninh870.0004.020 km2
Thai BinhThai Binh1.770.0001.509 km2
Thai NguyenSong Cong907.0003.541 km2
Thanh HoaThanh Hoa3.315.00011.168 km2
Thua Thien-HueHué975.0005.009 km2
Tien GiangMy Tho1.625.0002.339 km2
Tra VinhTra Vinh940.0002.369 km2
Tuven OuangTuven Ouang630.0005.801 km2
Vinh LongVinh Long1.045.0001.487 km2
Vinh PhucVinh Yen1.015.0001.371 km2
Yen BaiYen Bai640.0006.808 km2
urban areacapitalpopulationsurface
HaiphongHaiphong1.585.0001.504 km2
HanoiHanoi2.160.000921 km2
Ho Chi MinhHo Chi Minh City4.330.0002.090 km2

Education

Vietnamese children in school uniformPhoto:EU Humanitarian Aid and Civil protection CC Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic no changes

Education has always been important in Vietnam's history, especially inspired by the teachings of Confucius. Compared to other developing countries, Vietnam has a fairly well-educated population and therefore only a relatively small part of the population is illiterate. Most illiterate people are found among the minorities.

Not so long ago, education was a fully state responsability. After the reunification of Vietnam, many private schools were established, especially in the south, in the context of Doi Moi.

Vietnam has compulsory education for children aged six to fifteen, and the majority of Vietnamese children (approx. 89%) attend primary school. Primary education has a lower school that lasts five years and a superstructure of four years. Because teachers are poorly trained and schools are struggling with a lack of furniture and books, the students actually learn far too little. Many children drop out after primary school, about a third of the children attend secondary education.

Secondary education lasts three years and can give access to a college or university. There are about a hundred institutes of higher education, with universities in Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi, Cantho, Dalat and Hué. Haiphong has a Maritime Academy and Danang a Technical College.

The integrated education program has now been implemented in a total of 31 kindergartens and 32 primary schools. By 2000, 475 teachers had been trained in teaching children with disabilities, and more than 1000 disabled children were attending school.

Vietnam is facing a shortage of training places for higher education students. Of the 850,000 school-leavers, only 170,000 can follow further education. However, the training is often of a theoretical nature and by no means always meets the demand from the labor market.

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Sources

Krücker, F.-J. / Vietnam
Elmar

Paulzen, H. / Vietnam : mensen, politiek, economie, cultuur, milieu
Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen

Peterse, L. / Vietnam
Gottmer/Becht

Te gast in Vietnam
Informatie Verre Reizen

Vietnam
Cambium

Vietnam
Lannoo

Wulf, A. / Vietnam
Het Spectrum

CIA - World Factbook

BBC - Country Profiles

Last updated June 2021
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