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Geography and Landscape

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is made up of four countries; England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Landenweb has chosen to deal with each individual country.

United Kingdom Satellite Photo: Public Domain

Great Britain and Northern Ireland or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (officially: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; abbreviation: UK), is formed by an island group in northwestern Europe.

Landscape Nottingham EnglandPhoto:Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) no changes made

The United Kingdom includes the former kingdoms of England and Scotland and the former Principality of Wales, all located on the island of Great Britain. Northern Ireland therefore also belongs to the United Kingdom, but is located on the island of Ireland. There are also a number of well-known and lesser known islands (groups) including: the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands in the north, the Hebrides in the west, Anglesey and Man in the Irish Sea, Wight and the Channel Islands in the Channel. Read more about the geography of England

Snodonia National Park WalesPhoto:Tim Felce Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic no changes made

Wales (Welsh: Cymru, Land of brotherhood) is the westernmost part of the island of Great Britain. Formerly a principality, Wales is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain (Wales, England and Scotland) and Northern Ireland. Read more about the geography of Wales

Slieve Donard, Northern Ireland's highest mountainPhoto:Albert Bridge Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Genericno changes made

Northern Ireland is bordered to the south and west by Ireland and further to the Atlantic Ocean and to the Irish Sea, Donegal Bay and the North Channel. Western Scotland is at the nearest point just 21 km from Northern Ireland. The coastline is approximately 362 km long and runs from Lough (Lake) Foyle in the northwest to the Morne Mountains in the southeast. Read more about the geography of Northern Ireland

Ben Nevis, highest mountain in Scotland and Great BritainPhoto:Thincat in the public domain

Scotland (English: Scotland; German: Schottland; French: L'Écosse) is the northern part of the island of Great Britain, located in northwestern Europe. The total land area of Scotland, including the many islands, is 77,213 km2 (including inland waterways 78,764 km2). The mainland measures a maximum of 440 km from north to south and 248 km from east to west. Read more about the geography of Scotland

Climate and Weather

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is made up of four countries; England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Landenweb has chosen to deal with each individual country.

Foggy Fields in Yorkshire EnglandPhoto:Andy Beecroft Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic no changes made

England has a very maritime climate because of its location in the middle of the North Atlantic Gulf Stream and especially because of the strong prevailing southwestern winds, which almost always supply moist sea air. The low annual temperature is also characteristic and in South East England is only 13 °C. The winters are generally mild and the summers cool, with relatively high humidity in both periods. Very low temperatures can only occur when the eastern winds supply air from the European mainland in winter. Read more about the Climate of England

Threatening clouds over the Cambrian Mountains WalesPhoto:Roger Kidd Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0) no changes made

Wales has a moderate maritime climate, strongly influenced by the prevailing westerly winds and the warm Gulf Stream. This makes the weather very changeable and sun and rain can alternate several times in a day. Read more about the Climate of Wales

After rain comes sunshine Northern IrelandPhoto:Giuseppe Milo Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported no changes made

The weather can be very changeable in Northern Ireland. Rain, fog and sun sometimes alternate at lightning speed. Most precipitation falls in the west, approx. 2030 mm; in the east and southeast, annual falls are between 760 and 1010 mm. Spring is normally the driest period, the summer and winter periods are the wettest. It hardly ever snows and when it snows it is never in large quantities. Read more about the Climate of Northern Ireland

Rain over Beinn Eich, Luss Hills, ScotlandPhoto:Michal Klajban Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International no changes made

Due to the direction in which the Scottish mountains lie, the climate, in addition to the strong southwestern winds, is strongly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. In winter, this ensures relatively mild temperatures in the lower parts. It gets colder in winter on the high plains, in the mountains and on the northern coasts. Read more about the Climate of Scotland

Plants and Animals

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is made up of four countries; England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Landenweb has chosen to deal with each individual country.

Heath on the North York MoorsPhoto:Colin Grice in the public domain

About 7,000 to 5,000 years ago, birch and pine forests covered England. In 1919, only 4% of the total area of England was covered by forests. Due to good management of existing forests and a replanting program, the total amount of forest land had risen again to 10% in the mid-1990s. The animal world of England is not very rich in species. Large mammals such as red deer and roe deer are distributed locally and the fallow deer introduced in Roman times is quite widespread. This also applies to fox, tie and otter, although the latter is not so common anymore. Read more about the Plants and Animals of England

Gannets WalesPhoto:Dr Mary Gilham archive project Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) no changes made

Wales, together with most of Great Britain, belongs to the Atlantic flora region with characteristic plant species such as ivy, foxglove, wild honeysuckle and heather. Plant species from other flora regions are also found in Wales. Wales is best known for its many and large colonies of waterfowl. For example, the Welsh coastline is home to large colonies of seabirds. One of the largest colonies of gannets in the world, about 30,000 pairs, resides on Grassholm Island. Read more about the Plants and Animals of Wales

Harebel Northern IrelandPhoto:Toubib Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

The Irish island is also called the "emerald isle" because of the many shades of green that dominate the island. Only 5% of the island is covered with forest, mostly planted coniferous wood. Northern Ireland is rich in bats. The common pipistrelle bat is common. They are only 4.5 cm in size and weigh no more than a few grams. Other species include the little pipistrelle bat, Nathusius pipistrelle bat, Daubenton's water bat, brown long-eared bat, bearded bat and the Frill-tailed bat. Read more about the Plants and Animals of Northern Ireland

Red Deer ScotlandPhoto:Mehmet Karatay Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

In Scotland there are some vegetation types that are characteristic of the Atlantic climate. The forests in Scotland are generally deciduous forests. Beech forests are found on the poorer soils and the evergreen yew, holly and rowan are also found here. In the more humid forests we find an undergrowth of wood anemone, bingel herb, bilberry and bracken. The Scottish Highlands is home to some of Scotland's symbols, the golden eagle and the red deer, of which over 300,000 live in the Highlands. Special birds in this area are the capercaillie, corncrake and the endangered marsh ptarmigan. Read more about the Plants and Animals of Scotland

History

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is made up of four countries; England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Landenweb has chosen to deal with each individual country.

England Castlerigg Stone CirclePhoto:public domain

The earliest evidence of human presence in Britain comes from the Clactonian. Artifacts such as hand axes from the Early and Middle Palaeolithic have only been found in the south of England. Northern habitation tracks have been lost through several ice ages. Read more about the History of England

Red Lady of Paviland WalesPhoto:Ethan Doyle White at Engish Wijipedia CC BY-SA 3.0 no changes made

Today's Welsh territory was inhabited as early as 250,000 years ago, probably by Neanderthals. The following ice ages left these people again, but in the warmer intermediate ages, small groups of hunters, fishermen and collectors lived again and again. The oldest traces of human habitation date from about 28,000 years ago (the grave of the "Red lady of Paviland"). Read more about the History of Wales

Megalithic Tomb IrelandPhoto:Ronan Delaney Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International no changes made

Small groups of hunters settled in Ireland about 6,000 BC. on the north and east coast. Flint weapons and tools have been found of these people. In the late Stone Age (from 3000 BC) other peoples invaded Ireland from the Mediterranean and the Atlantic coast. They practiced agriculture, kept animals and erected many megalithic tombs. Read more about the History of Northern Ireland

Knapp of Howar, a house from 3500 B.CPhoto:unknown Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

Approx. 8500 BC, after the last ice age, people must have lived in Scotland. Given the archaeological finds that have been made, they probably came from Spain or France. For example, a burial chamber was found in the Orkney Islands that closely resembled finds in the Iberian Peninsula. Stone axes indicate the arrival of trading Irish. Read more about the History of Scotland

Population

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is made up of four countries; England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Landenweb has chosen to deal with each individual country.

The English love there pubphoto:Mark Waugh Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) no changes made

The residents of England are descended from a number of populations that settled on the British Isles over the course of millennia. The last invasion was that of the Normans in 1066. Before the Normans, several pre-Celtic and Celtic-speaking populations came to Great Britain and Ireland, followed by Romans (55 BC - 410 AD), Anglo-Saxons, Frisians and the Vikings from Denmark and Norway. All these peoples have undeniably left their mark in culture, language and architecture. Read more about the Population of England

Weldsh Rugby TeamPhoto:ezioman Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

The population of Wales (Welshmen) grew by only 900,000 inhabitants between 1900 and 1990, ie slower than the population of all of Great Britain. Many emigrated, including to England. In 2017, Wales has just over 3 million inhabitants. The average population density of Wales is approximately 140 inhabitants per km2, but the population is very unevenly spread. Read more about the Population of Wales

George Best, Iconic Northern Irish FootballplayerPhoto:Andy Welsh Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

The population of Northern Ireland is 1,876,695 (2017). Most residents live in the countryside. The ratio is about 45% in the countryside and 55% in the cities. In addition to the original Irish population, there are also many descendants of English and Scottish settlers. Read more about the Population of Northern Ireland

Highland games ScotlandPhoto:Jon Sullivan in the public domain

Since 1901 (4,472,000 inhabitants; currently (2017) approximately 5.3 million), the population of Scotland has increased only moderately. This slight increase in population was caused by a departure surplus; it is estimated that more than 20 million Scots and descendants of them live all over the world. Scotland is one of the least populated areas in Europe with about 65 inhabitants per km2. Read more about the Population of Scotland

Language

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is made up of four countries; England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Landenweb has chosen to deal with each individual country.

Map Official English language in the WorldPhoto:Eddo Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

The English language belongs to the Germanic languages, a large group within the Indogerman language family, to which almost all languages of Europe belong. Within the Germanic languages one can distinguish three subgroups: the Northern (including Norwegian, Danish and Swedish), the Continental (including German and Dutch) and the Western, to which English belongs. Read more about the Language of England

Traffic Sign in Wels and EnglishPhoto:Still ePsiLoN Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) no changes made

Welsh has been equated with English as an official language since 1967, and is spoken by about 20% of the population, mainly concentrated in the rural areas of the northwest, where about 60% of the population still speak Welsh. One of the longest place names in the world is:

Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch

Read more about the Language of Wales

A bilingual street sign in Northern IrelandPhoto:Nogger at English Wikipedia CrC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

English is the main language in Northern Ireland. After all, most inhabitants are descendants of English and Scottish settlers who colonized Northern Ireland in previous centuries. The English spoken here has a typical local accent. Gaelic (Irish) is still spoken here and there by the Catholic people, although the many Gaelic place names in Northern Ireland suggest otherwise. Read more about the Language of Northern Ireland

Gaelic RBS LogoPhoto:Chandres Creative Commons-licentie Naamsvermelding-Gelijk delen 3.0 Unportedno changes

The official language is dominated by its own form of Standard English, also known as Standard Scots. Nevertheless, Scotland historically belongs to four language spheres. Read more about the Language of Scotland

Religion

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is made up of four countries; England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Landenweb has chosen to deal with each individual country.

Westminster AbbeyPhoto:jdforesterCC-licentie Naamsvermelding-Gelijk delen 3.0 Unported no changes made

There is complete freedom of religion, but the state church of England is the Church of England. The King must be a member of the Church of England and must pledge to protect the Church when he is enthroned. Associated with the Church of England is the so-called Anglican Communion. About 72% of the English population belong to a state church or a free church, about 8% are Roman Catholic and over 2.5% are Islamic. There are also 400,000 Sikhs, 350,000 Hindus, 300,000 Jews and 25,000 Buddhists. Read more about the Religion of England

13 century church WalesPhoto:Rhodri Jones Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic no changes made

Christianity arrived in Wales in the 5th century. Until the mid-18th century, the vast majority of the Welshmen were members of the Anglican church. From 1735, the Church of England was fought from the inside out by the methodists, who emphasized piety, simplicity and poverty. Read more about the Religion of Wales

St Patrick's Church of Ireland Cathedral, Armagh, Northern IrelandPhoto:JohnArmagh Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

The Roman Catholic Church is the largest single denomination in Northern Ireland. Yet all Protestant groups are together in the majority. The Catholic population is about 45% of the population and lives mainly in the cities of Belfast and Londonderry. The largest Protestant groups are the Presbyterians and the Church of Ireland. Presbyterians are mainly of Scottish descent, members of the Anglican Church of Ireland are mainly of English descent and largely dominate social life in Northern Ireland. Read more about the Religion of Northern Ireland

Church of Scotland logoPhoto:Matthew Ross in the public domain

The Presbyterian Church of Scotland or Scottish Church (also called "Kirk") has about 1600 congregations with about 752,000 members, the (Anglican) Episcopal Church of Scotland about 58,000; the number of Roman Catholics is approximately 745,000, living mainly in and around Glasgow, who are divided into two archdioceses and six dioceses. Read more about the Religion of Scotland

Society

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is made up of four countries; England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Landenweb has chosen to deal with each individual country.

Houses of Parliament EnglandPhoto:Henry Kellner Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

The United Kingdom is a constitutional parliamentary monarchy, the constitution of which is not enshrined in a constitution, unique to such an important player in world politics. The constitution is essentially a body of statutes, customary law (based on judicial decisions and precedents) and conventions. Read more about the Society of England

Debating Chamber National Essemblee WalesPhoto:public domain

Politically, the Principality of Wales had lost its independence since 1282. The English king Edward I defeated the Welshmen and added Wales to his empire. In 1301, the king gave this new kingdom to his son, the English prince. This tradition continues to this day; the British heir apparent is entitled "Prince of Wales". Charles, the son of Queen Elizabeth, has been the "Prince of Wales" since 1969. Read more about the Society of Wales

Northern Irish Parliament BuildingsPhoto:Dom0803 Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

Northern Ireland is part of the United Kingdom and is in transition to self-government after a period of political turmoil. In 1920, the Northern Irish Parliament or "Stormont" was established, consisting of a House of Commons and a Senate. In the same year, Northern Ireland was granted autonomy in internal affairs. Read more about the Society of Northern Ireland

Debating chamber of the Scottish ParliamentPhoto:Colin Creative Commons Naamsvermelding-GelijkDelen 4.0 Internationaal no changes made

Scotland belongs to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, a constitutional monarchy headed by Queen Elizabeth II since 1952. Scotland had formed a parliamentary union with England since 1707 ("Act of the Union"), but it maintained its own legal system. In the British cabinet, one minister, the Secretary of State for Scotland, is in charge of Scottish affairs. He heads the government center in Edinburgh (St. Andrew's House). This Scottish Office also has an office in London under the same name. The Secretary of State is directly accountable to Parliament for the actions of the departments that make up the Scottish Office. Read more about the Society of Scotland

Economy

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is made up of four countries; England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Landenweb has chosen to deal with each individual country.

Steam engine-powered weaving mill in EnglandPhoto:publiic domain

The Industrial Revolution in particular made the United Kingdom the first major industrial nation, making it the world's largest economic power. In the areas of trade, transport, industrial production and banking and insurance, there was an unprecedented boom. Around 1900, competition from the United States and certain European countries began to decline. After World War I, many industries proved obsolete and the United Kingdom gradually lost its predominant position. Added to this was the loss of most colonies after 1945, which narrowed the economic base. Read more about the Economy of England

Steel Industry WalesPhoto:public domain

For years, coal mining and the iron and steel industry have been the pillars of the economy. In 1920, some 300,000 people were still working in the coal mines mainly in South Wales and around Wrexham. The services sector offers the most employment. The energy companies (gas and electricity) are also important. Large dams (Claerwen and Elan Valley) have been constructed in Mid Wales to generate electricity. Read more about the Economy of Wales

Harland and Wolff docks in BelfastPhoto:Ross Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic no changes made

Northern Ireland has traditionally been the least prosperous part of the United Kingdom. The London government is trying to improve this by making Northern Ireland attractive to foreign investors. The British government itself has also invested billions of euros in the Northern Irish economy in recent decades. Read more about the Economy of Northern-Ireland

Head office of the Bank of Scotland, Edinburgh.Photo:Rept0n1x Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

For centuries, the economic development of Scotland, partly due to its peripheral location, has lagged behind that of England, resulting in large-scale emigration. Exploration and exploitation of oil and gas have seen an economic upturn since the 1960s. The services sector has experienced strong growth. Read more about the Economy of Scotland

Holidays and Sightseeing

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is made up of four countries; England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Landenweb has chosen to deal with each individual country.

Stonehendge EnglandPhoto:Simon Wakefield Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

Tourism to the UK has become one of the major economic sectors with a total value of almost £80 billion. In total, more than 2 million people work in the tourism sector, which is about 7.5% of the total workforce. England has many tourist attractions, we limit ourselves here to some of the best known. Stonehenge near Salisbury is surrounded by a mystery. Here you see a circle of megalithic stones that date from around 2300 BC. It is almost certain that the monument was used as a cemetery, but it could also be a health center or a place of sacrifice. Today, people come to this magical place to experience the solstice. Read more about Holidays and attractions in England

Caernarfon Castle WalesPhoto:Manfred Heyde Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

Wales draws in the natural beauty of its landscape, castles and many legends. There are rugged mountains, cool forests, mysterious lakes, a beautiful coastline and many picturesque towns and villages. There are also beautiful hiking trails, and you can climb and canoe in the national parks. Historical sites attract tourists from all over the world. In addition to many museums, there are also more than a hundred impressive castles and remains of Roman fortresses and settlements. Read more about Holidays and attractions in Wales

Dark Hedges Northern IrelandPhoto: Ky0n Cheng in the public domain

There are plenty of places to visit in Northern Ireland.The Giant's Causeway, known for its polygonal columns of layered basalt, is a rock formation and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Due to a volcanic eruption 60 million years ago, it is the centerpiece of a protected area of natural beauty and has attracted visitors for centuries. Northern Ireland is also the place where many recordings were made for the "Game of Thrones" series, which has many fans worldwide. In any case, a visit to the Dark Hedges is recommended, Read more about Holidays and attractions in Northern Ireland

Jacobite Train ScotlandPhoto:96tommy Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

The tourist industry has now become one of the most profitable parts of the Scottish economy. With a few exceptions, there is no question of large scale. Well-known are the visits you can make to the whiskey distilleries (Malt Whisky Trail). There are more than a hundred distilleries open to visit. The taste difference in whisky can be from mild to smoky. Especially the Single Malts are popular and can be quite expensive in terms of price. Read more about Holidays and attractions in Scotland

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Sources

www.landenweb.com/england

www.landenweb.com/northern-ireland

www.landenweb.com/scotland

www.landenweb.com/wales

CIA - World Factbook

BBC - Country Profiles

Last updated September 2021
Copyright: Team Landenweb