Geography and Landscape


All of the approximately 7,000 islands and reefs in the Caribbean Sea, except for the Bahamas, are included in the Antilles, and lie in a more than 4,000 km long arc from Cuba, just below Florida, to Trinidad and Tobago, just northwest of the Venezuelan coast.

The Antilles can be subdivided in various ways, for example into Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles, with Trinidad and Tobago being the southernmost islands of the Antilles. The Lesser Antilles are subdivided into Leeward Islands and Windward Islands, to which the islands of Trinidad and Tobago belong. The Windward Islands are again subdivided into the Leeward Islands and the Windward Islands, to which Trinidad and Tobago belong geographically but not officially.

The island state of Trinidad and Tobago (officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago) is only 13 kilometres off the north-east coast of Venezuela and has maritime borders with Grenada.

Venezuela and has maritime borders with Grenada to the north-west and Barbados to the north-east. Trinidad and Tobago covers an area of 5128 km2 and consists, apart from many small islands, of two main islands, the larger Trinidad (4768 km2) and the much smaller Tobago (299 km2). Trinidad has an average length of 80 km and an average width of 59 km, Tobago, which lies 30 km north-east of Trinidad, is 41 km long and has a maximum width of 12 km.

Other islands belonging to the archipelago include Chacachacare, Monos, Huevos, Gaspar Grande (or Gasparee), Little Tobago and St. Giles Island.

Trinidad and Tobago Satellite PhotoTrinidad and Tobago Satellite PhotoPhoto Public Domain


In the centre of the island of Trinidad are fertile plains and savannahs. The north coast consists of a mountain range, with dense forestation. The highest point is the 940 m high Cerro del Aripo. The southern part of Trinidad is hilly. In an extinct volcano in the south-west lies the largest natural source of asphalt in the world: the 40 hectare Pitch Lake.

The much smaller island of Tobago is also hilly, with the 549 metre high Pidgeon Peak as its summit. The southern part is mainly flat and has a limestone subsoil, formed by former coral. Geologically speaking, Trinidad and Tobago are part of the South American mainland. The mountain ridges are in fact a continuation of the coastal mountains of Venezuela.

Landscape Trinidad en TobagoLandscape Trinidad en TobagoPhoto: Rictor Norton & David Allen CC 2.0 Generic no changes made


Elmar Landeninformatie


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Last updated April 2022
Copyright: Team Landenweb