State structure and administration
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The United Republic of Tanzania consists of the mainland and islands of Zanzibar, composed of the main island of Unguja, and Pemba and many other small islands.
The federation's head of state is the president, who can be elected for up to two five-year terms. He has a lot of power, because he appoints the prime minister, is commander in chief of the armed forces, has the right to veto the legislation, appoints some of the members of parliament and has the right to dissolve the parliament.
The 296 members of the Parliament or National Assembly (Bunge) are elected in part for five years by Tanzanians aged eighteen and older. 231 members are elected by the population, 49 places are reserved for women nominated by the president. Five seats are reserved for the Zanzibar House of Representatives, there is one attorney general, and up to 10 other members are nominated by the president. Although Dar es Salaam (Swahili: "House of Peace") is the undisputed economic, social and administrative center of Tanzania, Dodoma is formally the country's capital.
Zanzibar and Pemba have also had their own daily administration and an elected parliament since 1979, which are responsible for the internal affairs of the island. The House of Representatives consists of 50 directly elected members, to which nine women are added.
Since 1985, the two islands also have their own regional Constitution. The President of Zanzibar was also Vice President of Tanzania until 1996 and is also elected for a term of five years. In reality, Zanzibar has been governed by decree since 1964. For the current political situation see chapter history.
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Tanzania is administratively divided into 26 regions (21 mainland; 5 Zanzibar), which are divided into 130 districts and are led by a regional commissioner.
Zanzibar and Pemba are divided into three and two regions respectively. A district is headed by a district commissioner appointed by the central government.
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Compulsory education has existed since 1970 and Tanzania was one of the countries in Africa with the lowest illiteracy rate. Since 1986, the illiteracy rate has been growing again, from 9.6% in 1986 to 27.2% in 1997. At present, less than 50% of children go to primary school, and one in ten pupils subsequently completes secondary school. In particular, many rural girls drop out of school early. The families there have little money and prefer education for their sons.
The Tanzanian government realizes that good education is one of the pillars for the development of the country. Education is therefore one of the spearheads and one of the (overly optimistic?) Goals was primary education for everyone in 2015. Under the impulse of the Basic Education Master Plan (BEMP), a start was made in 1997 on reforming primary education.
The structure of the Formal Education and Training System consists of two years of pre-school education, seven years of primary education, four years of 'junior secondary' and two years of 'senior secondary'. After that, one can pursue three or more years of higher education.
Many Catholic and Protestant organizations have founded schools and there are also private schools founded by parents. Tanzania has two universities: the University of Dar es Salaam, founded in 1961 and the University of Agriculture of Sokoine, founded in 1984.
Heale, J. / Tanzania
Vlugt, B. / Kenia, Tanzania, Zanzibar
Waard, P. de / Reishandboek Tanzania
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