Cities in RUSSIA

State Structure

Duma RussiaPhoto:Moscowjob.net Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International no changes made

The president, now Putin, plays a crucial role in the political system of the Russian Federation. For example, the president appoints the prime minister (with the consent of the House of Representatives, the "Duma") and he can defeat the government or individual members thereof at any time. The latter happens very regularly. Furthermore, the president can promulgate far-reaching legislative measures outside parliament by means of decrees and orders. He is also the commander in chief of the army and responsible for domestic and foreign policy. An important body like the national Security Council is directly answerable to the president, and the secretary is again appointed by the president. In theory, it is possible for parliament to remove the president from office, but in practice this is almost impossible. The president may serve a maximum of two four-year terms and is elected by universal suffrage.

The State Duma ("Lower House") consists of 450 deputies and is elected every four years by universal suffrage. The voters may then cast two votes: one vote for a regional candidate and one vote for a national candidate for a particular party.

The Federation Council ("Senate") has 178 members and consists of two representatives from all 89 administrative units. Each region is intended to delegate the region's governor or president, along with someone elected by the regional parliament. For the current political situation see chapter history.

Administrative division

Map of administrative divisions of RussiaPhoto:TUBS Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

The Russian Federation is not a real Federation, but is based on the idea of the united state, with a certain autonomy for a number of areas. The territory is divided into 21 (sub ) republics , one autonomous region, six regions or border areas (krajs), ten autonomous districts (okrug), two federal cities (Moscow and Saint Petersburg) and 49 districts (oblasts). The Republic of Chechnya ,formerly part of the Soviet republic of Checheno-Ingusetia, declared itself unilaterally independent in 1991. Most republics and also the provinces are divided into districts (rajons). The republics have a constitution which is very similar to that conducted by the federation, provinces and other local governing bodies by directly elected soviets or Duma, with the local administration and governing body. Furthermore exist at lower levels also autonomous regions and other national entities, such as national districts, towns and villages .

In 2000, all republics and provinces were subdivided into seven federal districts, which do not form a separate administrative layer, but serve to strengthen federal control over the decentralized administration. Each federal district is headed by a representative of the president . The seven districts are: North-West, Central, Caucasus, Volga, Ural, Siberia and the Far East.

Republics:

RepublicAreaPopulation
Adygië7600 km2449.000
Alanië8000 km2664.000
Altaj92.600 km2202.000
Basjkirië143.600 km24.134.000
Boerjatië351.300 km21.050.000
Chakassië61.900 km2584.000
Dagestan50.300 km22.121.000
Ingoesjetië2.700 km2190.000
Kabarda-Balkarië12.500 km2789.000
Kalmukkië76.100 km2317.000
Karatsjajevo-Tsjerkessië14.100 km2436.000
Karelië172.400 km2780.000
Komi415.900 km21.172.000
Mari23.200 km2764.000
Mordovië26.200 km2950.000
Oedmoertië42.100 km21.636.000
Sacha3.103.200 km21.093.000
Tatarstan68.000 km23.763.000
Toevinië170.500 km2310.000
Tsjetsjenië16.600 km2862.000
Tsjoevasië18.300 km21.359.000

Autonomous area

Birobidjan (Jewish autonomous 36,000 km2 216,000 area)

Autonomous regions (okroegi)

RegionAreaPopulation
Aginski-Boerjatski19.000 km278.000
Evenki768.000 km225.000
Jamalo-Neneti750.000 km2493.000
Khantys-Mansts523.000 km21.314.000
Komi-Permjak30.000 km2160.000
Korjaki302.000 km240.000
Neneti178.000 km255.000
Oest-Ordynski20.000 km2138.000
Tajmyr (Dolgano-Neneti)862.000 km254.000
Tsjoektsji738.000 km287.000

Federal cities city population

Moscow - 8,300,000

Saint Petersburg - 4,700,000

Districts (oblasti)

DistrictenOppervlaktePopulation
Amur Oblast363.700 km2905.000
Arkhangelsk Oblast587.400 km21.340.000
Astrakhan Oblast44.100 km21.005.000
Belgorod Oblast27.100 km21.511.000
Bryansk Oblast34.900 km21.375.000
Chelyabinsk Oblast87.900 km23.605.000
Chita Oblast431.500 km21.155.000
Irkutsk Oblast767.900 km22.770.000
Ivanovo Oblast21.400 km21.150.000
Kaliningrad Oblast15.000 km2970.000
Kaluga Oblast29.900 km21.045.000
Kamchatka Oblast472.300 km2360.000
Kemerovo Oblast95.700 km22.900.000
Kirov Oblast120.800 km21.505.000
Kostroma Oblast60.200 km2740.000
Kurgan Oblast71.500 km21.020.000
Kursk Oblast29.800 km21.235.000
Leningrad Oblast85.900 km21.670.000
Lipetsk Oblast24.100 km21.215.000
Magadan Oblast461.400 km2185.000
Moscow Oblast45.000 km26.620.000
Murmansk Oblast144.900 km2895.000
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast76.900 km23.525.000
Novgorod Oblast53.895 km2685.000
Novosibirsk Oblast178.200 km22.695.000
Omsk Oblast139.700 km22.080.000
Orenburg Oblast124.000 km22.180.000
Oryol Oblast24.700 km2865.000
Penza Oblast43.300 km21.450.000
Perm Oblast160.600 km22.820.000
Pskov Oblast55.400 km2750.000
Rostov Oblast100.800 km24.405.000
Ryazan Oblast39.600 km21.230.000
Sakhalin Oblast87.100 km2550.000
Samara Oblast53.600 km23.240.000
Saratov Oblast100.200 km22.670.000
Smolensk Oblast49.786 km21.050.000
Sverdlovsk Oblast194.800 km24.490.000
Tambov Oblast34.539 km21.160.000
Tomsk Oblast316.900 km21.060.000
Tula Oblast25.700 km21.680.000
Tver Oblast84.586 km21.445.000
Tyumen Oblast1.435.200 km23.265.000
Ulyanovsk Oblast37.300 km21.385.000
Vladimir Oblast29.000 km21.525.000
Volgograd Oblast114.100 km22.700.000
Vologda Oblast145.700 km21.270.000
Voronezh Oblast52.400 km22.380.000
Yaroslavl Oblast36.400 km21.370.000

Regions (krajs)

169.100 km2

Region (kraj)areapopulation
Altai Krai 2.600.000
Khabarovsk Krai788.600 km21.160.000
Krasnodar Krai76.000 km25.130.000
Krasnoyarsk Krai2.403.520 km23.700.000
Primorsky Krai165.900 km22.305.000
Stavropol Krai66.500 km22.680.000

Education

Main building of Moscow State University in MoscowPhoto:Dmitry A. Mottl Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

In Russian schools, all age groups are usually present at one educational institute. Children are obliged to go to school from the age of six to seventeen, starting with the so-called 1st department, grades 1 to 4.

Then they go on to department 2, grades 5 to 9 of the secondary Education. In this department, a package of subjects is followed that is already tailored to personal preference and aptitude.

Finally, there are grades 10 and 11 in the 3rd department of secondary education. All children receive the compulsory curriculum here, including Russian literature, mathematics, physics, astronomy, a modern language and physical education.

Higher education in Russia is provided at universities, institutes and academies. Both vocational and university programs are offered at all institutions. Universities provide programs in various disciplines, more recently in agriculture, medicine and technology.

In addition, there are hundreds of institutes in Russia that provide training for regulated professions in a number of disciplines. This includes agricultural, pharmaceutical, medical, pedagogical, and technical institutes. In recent years these institutes have often been given the status of universities. Academies provide training in one discipline.

The first two years of higher education studies are broadly oriented, with subjects such as mathematics, physics, chemistry and languages. The last two or three years are devoted to a specialization: and then one is not trained as a general structural engineer, but for example as a specialist in refrigeration technology.

Sources

Graaf, A. van der / Reis-handboek Sovjet-Unie
Elmar

Rusland, Centraal-Azië en de Kaukasus
The Reader’s Digest,

Russia & Belarus
Lonely Planet

Te gast in Rusland
Informatie Verre Reizen

CIA - World Factbook

BBC - Country Profiles

Last updated December 2020
Copyright: Team Landenweb