Cities in PERU

State structure

According to the Constitution of December 29, 1993, Peru is a presidential republic and legislative power rests with the Congress or "Congreso Constituyente Democratíco". Congress consists of a 120-member Chamber of Deputies who are elected by direct elections for a period of 5 years. 25 members are directly appointed by the House itself.

Executive power rests with the President, who is elected for a term of office of 5 years. The incumbent president was already allowed to go for a second term for a new term, in 2000 Congress approved a possible third term. If a candidate obtains 56% or more of the votes in direct elections, he is elected, with a lower vote percentage a second round of voting will follow. Since April 2001 elections have been made according to a district system. Voting is compulsory for citizens aged 18 and older (since 1980 also for illiterate people).

The president appoints the prime minister and also heads the armed forces. He also has the power to block legislation if the executive disagrees. For the current political situation see chapter history.

Administrative division

Peru is administratively divided into 25 regions and further divided into 156 provinces. The regions are governed by appointed prefects, the districts by a directly elected mayor.

overview regions:

region capital xity surface population
Amazonas Chachapoyas 39.249 km2 395.000
Ancash Huaráz 35.826 km2 1.050.000
Apurimac Abancay 20.896 km2 420.000
Arequipa Arequipa 63.345 km2 1.040.000
Ayacucho Ayacuchu 43.814 km2 530.000
Cajamarca Cajamarca 33.247 km2 1.380.000
Callao Callao 147 km2 740.000
Cusco Cusco 71.892 km2 1.140.000
Huancavelica Huancavelica 22.131 km2 425.000
Huánuco Huánaco 36.938 km2 750.000
Ica Ica 21.328 km2 635.000
Junín Huancayo 44.410 km2 1.170.000
La Libertad Trujillo 25.570 km2 1.450.000
Lambayegue Chiclayo 14.231 km2 1.055.000
Lima Lima 34.802 km2 7.200.000
Loreto Iquitos 368.852 km2 850.000
Madre de Dios Puerto Maldonado 85.138 km2 80.000
Moquegua Moquegua 15.734 km2 145.000
Pasco Cerro de Pasco 25.320 km2 250.000
Piura Piura 35.892 km2 1.550.000
Puno Puno 71.999 km2 1.200.000
San Martín Moyobamba 51.253 km2 700.000
Tacna Tacna 16.076 km2 265.000
Tumbes Tumbes 4.669 km2 185.000
Ucayali Pucallpa 102.411 km2 400.000


From 1972, education has been compulsory for children between the ages of seven and sixteen, but unfortunately the educational level in Peru is among the lowest in Latin America. Pupil dropout rate in primary school is up to 40%, and few pupils continue to secondary school. Of all six to eleven year olds, mainly outside the big cities, about 12.7% are without education. In 2000 Peru had about 50,000 educational institutions.

One third of the fifty or so universities are located in the capital Lima and about half a million students follow a university degree. Qualitatively much better is education at private universities, which, however, is reserved for only a few.

Approx. 13% of the population is illiterate, the majority of which are women. In rural areas, 45% of women cannot read, against 11% of men.

Typically Peru


Nazca is located in the south of Peru, not far from the Pacific Ocean on the Pampa de San José. It is the place of the mysterious drawings that have given rise to the most diverse theories. The lines and figures of Nazca were protected by UNESCO as a cultural world heritage site in December 1994. The lines were discovered in 1939 by the American Paul Kosok of Long Island University.

The Nazca lines are a series of drawings of birds (including pelican, hummingbird), other animals and geometric figures such as triangles, rectangles and spirals, sometimes with a diameter of up to 300 meters and furthermore there are straight lines of ten kilometers in length.

The figures were made by excavating the desert soil about ten centimeters, revealing a less weathered and lighter colored part of the soil.

It is still unclear who made the enormous drawings. Some archaeologists think of it as an astronomical calendar, others think of copies of certain star constellations that could be used to record the exact movement of the stars. Fantasies think about runways for foreign airships! The figures are believed to have been made between 200 BC. and 600 after. Chr.

Nobel Prize for Literature

The Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa recieved the 2010 Nobel Prize in Literature. He was awarded the prize for his striking characterization of power and resistance, the Nobel Committee reported.

Vargas Llosa considered the award of the Nobel Prize to him as a recognition of Latin American literature and literature in the Spanish language.


Le Grand, J.W. / Peru : mensen, politiek, economie, cultuur
Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen : Novib

Luft, A. / Peru

Lyle, G. / Peru
Chelsea House Publishers,


Peru, Bolivia

Rensink, E. / Peru

Te gast in Peru
Informatie Verre Reizen

CIA - World Factbook

BBC - Country Profiles

Last updated October 2020
Copyright: Team Landenweb