Cities in NEW ZEALAND
More than half of New Zealand's total land area is used as an agricultural or pasture land. The economy of a modern country like New Zealand is therefore highly dependent on a small number of agricultural products, in particular wool, meat and butter. Yet just under 7% of the workforce works in this agricultural sector, which accounts for more than 50% of export earnings (2017). The transition to a more industrial society is almost impossible due to the relatively small domestic market and the great distance from overseas markets. However, since 1984, the government has been trying to turn the agricultural economy, which is largely dependent on the British market, into a more industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally.
In any case, this approach has resulted in an increase in per capita income and an improvement in the technological capacities of the industrial sector. The inflation rate was also contained and among the lowest in the industrialized world (2013: 1.9%). However, the economic future remains uncertain due to the high dependence on the economic situation in Asia, Europe and the United States. In 2017, the Gross National Product was $ 189 billion, that is, $ 39,000 per capita. Economic growth was 3% in 2017. Although access to the European Union has become more difficult, New Zealand has managed to increase exports to Asian countries, the Middle East and the United States, leaving a trade surplus. In 2017, 4.7% of the labor force were unemployed. The share among the Maori population is three times as large.
Agriculture, livestock farming, fishing and forestry
Livestock farming is the most important sector in agriculture, with approximately 9 million cattle. The dairy farms and the companies with intensive sheep and beef cattle farming are mainly located on the North Island. New Zealand is one of the world's largest exporters of lamb and mutton. Extensive sheep farming in the highlands of the South Island mainly serves for wool production. New Zealand is the third wool producing and second wool exporting country in the world. There are about 50 million sheep and there are companies that have more than 12,000 sheep.
Mining, industry and energy
New Zealand's major resources are coal, natural gas, gold, silver and limestone. The six natural gas fields cover a large part of the energy demand, but these fields are expected to produce less in the future. A number of oil fields have also been put into production in the Tasman Sea.
Agricultural exports are still the main source of income. Main export products are therefore livestock, meat and meat products, wool, butter, pulp, paper, cheese and skins. In 2017, exports amounted to $ 37.4 billion and the main customers are: Japan, Australia, China and the United States. Imports are mainly machines and transport equipment, fuels and chemicals. In 2017, $ 39.7 billion was imported. Main suppliers are: China, Australia, Japan, the United States and Germany.
New Zealand has an extensive road network (in total 100,000 km) in both North and South Island. It is noteworthy that New Zealand has 15,800 bridges. The rail network (4,273 km) connects the main population centers and is privatized in 1990 by New Zealand Rail Ltd. operated, which also maintains an extensive bus network.
Driessen, J. / Reishandboek Nieuw-Zeeland
Gebauer, B. / Nieuw-Zeeland
Gebauer, B. / Nieuw-Zeeland
Hanna, N. / Nieuw-Zeeland
Harper, L. / New Zealand
Te gast in Nieuw-Zeeland
Williams, J. / New Zealand
CIA - World Factbook
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