Geography and Landscape


French Guiana is the oldest colony of France and is located on the north-east coast of South America. The country borders Suriname to the west, Brazil to the south and east and the Atlantic Ocean to the north.

The area in the south-west, between the Litani and Maroni rivers, is disputed with Suriname. The capital of French Guiana is Cayenne. French Guiana (French: Guyane) is a French overseas department on the north coast of South America. It is the largest territory of the European Union outside of Europe.


The mountainous interior is covered with dense jungle. More than 20 rivers rise here and flow into the sea. The most important are the Oyapock in the east and the Maroni in the west. They form a natural border with the respective neighbouring countries of Brazil and Suriname. In the south, the Toemoek-Hoemak mountain range marks the border with Brazil.

Oyapock River, French GuianaOyapock River, French GuianaPhoto:Arria Belli CC 3.0 Unported no changes made

The country is divided into three zones: the terres basses (broad coastal plains with mangroves and sandy beaches), a central plateau with savannah vegetation that passes into the terres hautes, the jungle-covered mountain areas.


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CIA - World Factbook

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Last updated April 2022
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