Cities in FLORIDA
Popular destinations USA
First Florida residents
The first humans reached Florida about 12,000 years ago. They were attracted by the varied landscape with many (edible) plants and animals. Most of the animals still found in Florida still existed then, supplemented by extinct animals such as saber-toothed tiger, mastodon, giant armadillo and camel. The coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico was very different from the current coastline. The sea level was much lower than now and the peninsula was therefore twice as big.
The then residents of Florida were hunters and gatherers, who mainly lived by hunting small (mammals) animals and collecting plants, nuts and crustaceans. The large mammals that were actually present were probably not hunted much. These first Floridians settled in areas where there was a constant supply of fresh water, suitable stones for making tools, and wood for making fire. Over a period of centuries, these humble indigenous people evolved into complex cultures that developed increasingly better agricultural methods, entered trade routes with the southeastern United States, and improved social organization resulted in the construction of large walled temples and village complexes.
European Explorers and Florida Colonization
Written resources on native Florida life have only been available since the discovery of Florida in 1513 by the Spanish explorer and adventurer Juan Ponce de León (ca. April 8, 1460-July 1521). Sometime between April 2 and 8, 1513, Ponce de León entered the northeast coast of Florida, possibly near present-day St. Augustine.
Photo:Unknown in the public domain
In 1539, the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto (ca. 1497-1542) started an expedition in search of gold and silver. For four years he traveled across Florida and part of the southwestern United States (Georgia, Alabama and most likely Arkansas) in search of hidden Native American treasures. De Soto and his men camped in northern Florida for about five months near the current capital of Florida, Tallahassee. De Soto died on the banks of the Mississippi in 1542; he was the first European documented to have crossed that river; survivors of his expedition eventually reached Mexico.
Photo:Ebyabe Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made
Meanwhile, other European nations also became interested in Florida, particularly the French. In 1562 this was the Protestant Jean Ribault (1520-1565), two years later René Goulaine de Laudonnère (c. 1529-1574) Fort Caroline at the mouth of the St. Johns River, near present-day Jacksonville.
First Spanish period
The activities of the French adventurers and explorers accelerated the Spanish response to colonize Florida. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés (1519-1574) rushed across the Atlantic from Spain to drive out the French and in 1565 founded the first permanent European settlement in what is now the United States, San Augustín (now: St. Augustine in Northeast Florida). He did manage to expel the French, only those who did not resist and who converted to the Catholic faith were allowed to stay. Fort Caroline was captured and renamed San Mateo.
Even now the Spaniards did not let themselves be fooled and around 1600 they had full control over the current southeastern United States. However, it did not take long for the first English settlers to settle in America, including Jamestown (in present-day Virginia) in 1607, and Plymouth (in present-day Massachusetts) in 1620. Together with the English army, they drove the Spaniards south. to the south of Georgia. At the same time, French explorers were advancing east through the Mississippi Valley and up the Gulf of Mexico coast.
Foto:National Park service in the public domain
In 1763 the British gained control of Florida in exchange for Havana in Cuba, which the British had conquered from Spain during the Seven Years' War (1756-1763). The Spaniards withdrew almost completely from an extinct Florida; St. Augustine was now only a garrison town of no more than 500 houses, and Pensacola was also a small military town.
Second Spanish period
After the British cleared the field, Spanish and American colonists flocked in en masse, attracted by the attractive settlement conditions. Many slaves from the United States also fled to Florida, where their bosses could no longer reach them. This made the two Floridas not Spanish, but more American. Finally, after several US military expeditions, Spain transferred Florida to the United States in 1821 under the terms of the Adams-Onís Treaty. On one of the expeditions, in 1818, General and later President Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) invaded Florida. Jackson's battles with the Native American population, which had many problems with Florida's white population, is known as the First Seminole War (1835-1842).
Photo:Sémhur Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International no changes made
Around 1840 the Floridians concentrated on developing the territory, the main economic activity was agriculture, and obtaining 'state' status. The population at that time numbered about 55,000 people, of which about half were black slaves. Florida at the time was unofficially divided into three areas: East Florida from the Atlantic Ocean to the Suwannee River; Central Florida between the Suwannee and Apalachicola Rivers; and West Florida from the Apalachicola to the Perdido River. South Florida, south of present-day Gainesville, was scarcely populated by whites. The acreage of plantations was concentrated in Central Florida and the owners set the political tone in Florida until after the Civil War.
Florida, the 27th state in the United States
On March 3, 1845, Florida became the 27th state in the United States and William Dunn Moseley (1795-1863) was elected as the first governor of the new state. David Levy Yulee, one of the greatest advocates for joining the United States, became a senator in the national parliament.
Photo: State of Florida in the public domain
By 1850, the population had grown to about 87,500 people, including about 39,000 slaves and about 1,000 free blacks.
American Civil War and Reconstruction
With no major battles fought in Floridian territory, Florida was not as affected by the Civil War as many other southern states. Union troops occupied many coastal towns and fortresses, the interior of Florida was in the hands of the Confederacy. Florida provided approximately 15,000 troops and much food and supplies to the Confederacy, but approximately 2,000 Floridians, both African-American and White, joined the Union military. Confederacy and foreign merchant ships slipped through the coastal blockade of the Union and managed to supply the troops. Tallahassee was the only southern capital east of the Mississippi that was not occupied, but the South was eventually conquered and federal troops occupied Tallahassee on May 10, 1865.
Before the Civil War, Florida was on its way to becoming one of the southern cotton states. After the civil war, that course changed. The ports of Jacksonville and Pensacola flourished as a result of the demand for timber and timber products to rebuild the many destroyed cities. The slaves have now been declared free and former plantation owners tried to hire their former slaves to work on the (cotton) plantations.
Florida is developing
During the last quarter of the 19th century, the commercial agricultural sector, and in particular livestock farming, became increasingly important. Industrial activities such as the cigar industry have become established in the immigrant society of Florida. Major investors were interested in companies that extracted resources from water and land, such as sponges in Tarpon Springs and phosphate mines in the southwest of the state. The citrus industry grew rapidly, despite some freezing periods and economic problems. From 1855, these industrial developments accelerated the construction of many roads and railways through the so-called 'Internal Improvement Act'. Many railways were operated by Henry M. Flagler (1830-1913) and Henry B. Plant (1819-1899), who built large hotels near the railways.
Photo:JJ Cade, in the public domain
From the 1970s onwards, the tourism industry started from the northern United States, including steamboat tours over the rivers were very popular. The Internal Improvement Act also made the marshy and swampy landscape of southern Florida suitable for agricultural use by drainage. All these developments greatly affected the economy of late 19th-century Florida. The citrus industry, in particular, benefited fully from the draining of South Florida and exports to the northern United States.
At the turn of the century, the population and income of the population grew rapidly and the possibilities of the Sunshine State seemed endless. Towards the end of World War I, many land developers saw a virtual gold mine emerge in Florida, enhanced by the emergence of the automobile, allowing more people to spend their Florida vacation. Land in Florida became increasingly expensive as a result of these developments.
Florida after WWII
The Second World War brought an economic revival in Florida. Due to its mild year-round climate, the state was used as an ideal training ground for American and Allied soldiers, sailors and airmen. The construction of highways and airfields was accelerated, providing Florida with an up-to-date and modern transportation system after the war, which was used by its own citizens and industry, as well as by a rapidly increasing flow of visitors from home and abroad. The growth of the population also took spectacular forms due to both domestic immigration and migrants from Cuba and Haiti in particular. People from the diverse populations have fought to make Florida a state where all residents would have legal equal rights. Public education has undergone major changes since the 1950s. African American citizens, backed by 33rd Florida Governor LeRoy Collins (Governor from 1/4/1955 to 1/3/1961), and other whites, fought to end discrimination in education and other social institutions.
Since World War II, Florida's economy has become much more diverse. In addition to the well-known sectors such as tourism, livestock, citrus and phosphate, a series of new industries were added, including electronics, plastics, construction, housing and international banks settled in booming Florida. Many important American multinationals relocated their headquarters to Florida.
Photo: US National Weather Servicein the public domain
Photo: MODIS image captured by NASA ' s Aqua satellite in the public domain
Bailey, Ruth / Florida
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