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BAHRAIN
 

General

Bahrain (officially: Dawlat al Bahrayn;Bahrayn for short) is an independent state in the Middle East consisting of a group of 33 islands in the Persian Gulf, located between the Qatar peninsula and the mainland of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is 22 kilometers and Qatar is 28 kilometers from Bahrain. Bahrain also includes the controversial Hawar Islands. Bahrain is the only island state in the Arab world and is simply referred to as "the island".

Bahrain Satellite PhotoPhoto: Public Domain

The total area of Bahrain is 695 km². Bahrain Island is the largest island and is 50 kilometers long and sixteen kilometers wide. Bahrain Island is linked by dams to the international airport on Muharraq Island and to Sitra Island, an industrial site. The rocky islands offer a desert-like appearance, except in the far north and northwest of the main island where freshwater sources allow fertile agricultural areas. Elsewhere, the vegetation consists only of desert plants. In particular, the sand-covered loamy soils in Central Bahrain are salty, dry and therefore hardly overgrown.

Bahrain LandscapePhoto: Soman Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic no changes made

Bahrain's highest point is Jebel ad-Dukhan at 134 meters, which is located in the center of Bahrain Island. Most of the oil wells are located around this mountain. Bahrain beaches are not recommended as the water is not very clean due to the very shallow water. You can walk up to 500 meters into the sea and then you are only knee-deep in the water. The best beaches are man-made and owned by hotels and private clubs. Bahrain's best beach is Al-Jazayir. The capital of Bahrain is Manama. Other important cities are Muharraq, Rifa'a, Jidhafs, Sitra, Awali and Isa Town.

Average Rainfall BahrainPhoto: Rehman Abubakr CrC Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International no changes made

Bahrain has a warm and humid climate;in summer, from May to September, the average temperature reaches approx. 29°C, in winter approx. 21°C. Average daytime temperatures are around 36°C. with an average of twelve days above 40°C. From November to March there is a pleasant climate with warm days and cool nights with minimum temperatures of 14°C. and maximum temperatures of 24°C. That is also the best time to visit Bahrain. The average humidity is 7% in winter and 59% in summer.
In summer, sand storms and hot summer winds (qaws) make the climate very unpleasant. The rainfall is very low: only about 75 mm per year. Most precipitation falls in the period from December to the end of April. In the period from June to November it hardly ever rains.

Plants

The "Tree of Life" (Shajarat-al-Hayat) in southern Bahrain is a nearly ten-meter high solitary Prosopis cineraria, in fact a thorny shrub, over 400 years old. The tree is on a hill in the Arabian desert, two kilometers from Jebel Dukhan, the highest point in Bahrain, and 40 kilometers from the capital Manama. In this very dry climate, the tree finds water thanks to roots that grow up to 50 meters long.

 Tree of Life (Shajarat-al-Hayat), tourist attraction in Bahrain
photo: unknownCC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

Animals

Scorpion Fish BahrainPhoto: LASZLO ILYES Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

Under water there are many fish species and also turtles, rays and whale sharks. Sea snakes, jellyfish and scorpion fish are dangerous. From time to time you can see manatees.

Antiquity

Dilmun Culture BahrainPhoto: Rapid Travel Chai Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported no changes made

Bahrain's history dates back to the dawn of humanity. Bahrain Island is approx. 6000 years BC. detached from the Arabian mainland and has almost certainly been inhabited since prehistoric times. In the third millennium BC. Bahrain enters world history. It was then known as Dilmun, one of the great trading empires of the ancient world.
The empire benefited from its strategic location between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. The Middle East had a much milder climate ± 4500 years ago than it is now, although it was already getting drier then. Dilmun was a sacred island in Sumerian mythology. The Sumerians were one of the first civilizations to flourish in today's southern Iraq. The Sumerians descended from the Ubaids and Bahrain continued this contact after the creation of Dilmun, 3000 BC. At its peak, Dilmun's influence extended north to present-day Kuwait and inland to the Al-Hasa Oasis in eastern Saudi Arabia.
Between 1600 and 1000 BC. Decline set in and this coincided with the fall of Indus Valley Civilization in Pakistan. Dilmun suffered greatly as a trading port on the route from Mesopotamia to the Indus. Dilmun's decline continued for centuries afterward and into the 8th century BCE. Dilmun was mentioned as an indebted part of Assyria. A few centuries later, Dilmun was completely taken over by the Babylonians and ceased to exist. Of the next 200 years, almost nothing is known about this region, which only reappears after the arrival of the Nearchus, an admiral of Alexander the Great's army in the 4th century BC. Bahrain was used until the advent of Islam in the 7th century AD. commonly known by its Greek name Tylos. The period 300 BC. to 300 AD. was a reasonably prosperous one. The dominant regional power at the time was the Seleucid Empire, one of the successor states of Alexander the Great's empire. The Seleucid Empire stretched from present-day Israel and Lebanon to Mesopotamia and Persia and probably Bahrain. The Seleucids, who ruled only briefly, were succeeded by the Parthians, a Persian dynasty. The Parthians ruled Bahrain until the third century and were succeeded by the Sassanids who annexed Bahrain in the fourth century. Many residents of Bahrain had already converted to Christianity in the third and fourth centuries. The Sasanian Empire was also a center of Zoroasterianism and Manichaeism. However, Zoroastrianism became the official religion of the Sasanian Empire. Apostates were persecuted, but Bahrain was often spared these persecutions. In the early 5th century, the Nestorian Christian sect established itself in Bahrain and along the Arabian side of the Gulf. The two dioceses in Bahrain survived until about 835. Evidence has also been found that Bahrain also controlled part of the adjacent coast during this period. Bahrain's main island was then also known as "Awal", a name still used by the Bahrainis until the early 20th century.

Islam and Portuguese rule

Bahrain FortPhoto: Martin Falbisoner CCAttribution-Share Alike 4.0 International no changes made

Bahrain is one of the first areas outside the Arab mainland to convert to Islam. Around 640 Bahrain adopted Islam, but Christians and Muslims would coexist peacefully for two more centuries. From the 9th to the 11th century, Bahrain became part of the Umayyad and the Abassid Empire. Bahrain regained reasonable prosperity and was once again an important place on the trade route between Mesopotamia and the Indian subcontinent. During the Middle Ages, conveniently located Bahrain was ruled by various rulers, as was the rest of the Gulf region, which was constantly at war. The Omanis conquered Bahrain and the Muharraq Islands in 1487 and built Arad Fort on Muharraq.
By 1485, Portuguese Duarte Barbosa was the first European to visit Bahrain. He called the islands "Barem", referring to the quantity and quality of the pearls found. The Portuguese fleet conquered the islands around 1520. As a pearl fishing port, Bahrain had, and was, a certain economic value to the Portuguese, important because of the large stocks of fresh drinking water and its strategic location. Bahrain was therefore on the front line when the Ottoman Turks and the Portuguese fought for control of the Gulf region in the first half of the 16th century. The second half of the 16th century was quieter because the Portuguese had firm control over Bahrain.

Al-Khalifa family, Britain and oil

Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa BahrainPhoto: Public domain

In 1602, the brother of one of Bahrain's richest traders, Rukn-el-Din, was executed. Rukn el-Din led the ensuing revolt and the Portuguese were driven from the island. Rukn el-Din quickly sought support from the Persians (Shah Abbas I the Great), and as a result Bahrain remained part of Persia throughout the 17th century. In the mid-18th century, the Al-Khalifa family arrived in Bahrain from Kuwait. Around 1782, Sheikh Ahmed al-Fatih expelled the Persian garrison and occupied the main islands of the Bahrain archipelago with the help of the Al-Sabah family in Kuwait. Bahrain and the Muharraq Islands were of great importance at the time because their location made them fairly immune to the raids of the Wahhabis, ancestors of today's Saudi Arabian royal family. These raids were frequent until about 1818. Ahmed ruled until his death in 1796, after which his two sons Abdullah and Sulman took over. In 1799, however, the two brothers were chased away by the Omanis. Only in 1820 did he manage to recapture the islands. Shortly afterwards, Bahrain concluded a treaty with Great Britain in which Bahrain declared that it would not engage in piracy against British ships. From 1834, the British began to formalize their presence in the Gulf. In fact, India became an increasingly important part of the British kingdom, and security in the Gulf was therefore paramount. In 1835 the rulers of the various Gulf States were more or less forced by the Royal Navy to sign a peace treaty. The British also urged the abolition of slavery. Yet it did not remain quiet for long in the Gulf region. Around 1840, three decades followed with many problems. After Khalifa's death, his son, Mohammed bin Khalifa, established himself on the throne in Muharraq as a co-ruler and rival of Abdullah. In 1843, he captured Al-Zubra in Qatar and deposed Abdullah, who would die in exile five years later. In 1861, Mohammed made a treaty of friendship, the "Treaty of Perpetual Peace and Friendship" with the British. These treaties (idem in 1881 and 1891) gave Britain control of the foreign affairs of Bahrain and other Gulf states in exchange for protection by the British army. Mohammed bin Khalifa was soon challenged by the son of the expelled Abdullah, Mohammed bin Abdullah. He attacked Bahrain from the Arab mainland. During this turbulent period, war broke out between Bahrain and Qatar that ended in 1868 when Mohammed bin Khalifa fled to Quatar and his brother Ali proclaimed himself ruler of Bahrain. In Qatar, Mohammed bin-Khalifa built a new fleet, invaded Bahrain and killed Ali in 1869. However, Mohammed bin-Khalifa made a grave mistake, giving Mohammed bin-Abdulah a high post in the conquering army. After the capture of Bahrain, he immediately deposed Mohammed bin-Khalifa and put him in prison. The British saw this and decided to intervene. The Royal Navy made their way to Bahrain, both Muhammads were deported to Bombay in India and Ali's son Sheikh Isa bin Ali was appointed as the Emir. Sheikh Isa's bloodline has ruled Bahrain ever since. Since the interest of the British was only to keep the Turks out of the region, they stayed out of Bahrain's domestic politics for the rest of the 19th century. Both Turkey and Persia continued to claim Bahrain until 1970 but did not dare to challenge the British. The very conservative Sheikh Isa bin Ali ruled until his death in 1932. In 1923 he was forced by the British to hand over the day-to-day business to his son Hamad, who would rule until 1942 after his father's death. Immediately after taking office in 1923, he started modernizing Bahrain. Ten years later, after the discovery of oil, the pace of modernization was accelerated. Schools, hospitals and new mosques were built, practically the entire country was electrified and an airport was constructed. Important to the development of Bahrain was the arrival in 1923 of a new advisor to the Emir, Charles Belgrave. He was instrumental in setting up an education system and bguided the development of infrastructure on the island. World War II passed quite unnoticed. A day after the British, the Bahrainis declared war on Germany and Italy in 1939. Bahrain was of course very important in connection with the supply of oil for the armies of the Allies. Sheikh Hamad was succeeded in 1942 by his nineteen-year-old son Sulman. The standard of living was already very high in Bahrain at that time, also compared to the oil giants such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The production of oil was not much compared to these two countries, but Bahrain, due to its location, served as an important store for the oil from the entire Gulf region.

Bahrain towards independence

Bahrain Committee of National Unity 1954Photo: Public domain

In the fifties of the twentieth century, there was very turmoil in the Arab world. Egyptian President Nasser, for example, strongly opposed the colonial presence in the Arab world and thereby created a process of awareness in the Arab world. Also in Bahrain more and more people came with an aversion to the British. In particular, students who had studied in Cairo, Beirut or London came with an antipathy towards the British back in their country. In 1952 reform-minded Sunni and Shia members of the communities formed an eight-person Higher Executive Committee. They demanded Western-style unions, a parliament and the resignation of Belgrave. Although Belgrave was allowed to stay, the Emir granted several other wishes. Things got somewhat out of hand in 1956 when stones were thrown at British Foreign Secretary Selwyn Lloyd on his visit to Bahrain. In retaliation, several members of the Committee of National Union (successor to the Higher Executive Committee) were deported. In November of that year, several people were killed in riots following the Suez crisis. British troops landed to protect the oil fields, but at the same time, deliveries of oil from Saudi Arabia to Bahrain's oil refinery were halted. Not long after, Belgrave "retired". The emir appointed another Briton, but by that time things had settled down and they continued to earn a lot of money. Sheikh Sulman died in 1961 and was succeeded by his son Isa bin Sulman al-Khalifa, who ruled until his death in March 1999. He was succeeded again by his son Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa. After Britain announced its intention to withdraw from the Gulf, Bahrain joined in late 1971 in an effort to federate with Qatar and the seven "Trucial States", now the United Arab Emirates. Being the largest in population of the nine emirates, Bahrain claimed the greatest control in the proposed federation. The others refused to respond, after which Bahrain decided to go on alone and declared independence on August 14, 1971, with the consent of Great Britain. Great Britain concluded a treaty of friendship with the new state without any defensive obligations. Qatar also withdrew from the future federation. At the end of 1972 a kind of working group was set up to prepare a new constitution. The Emir approved the constitution in May 1973 and elections were held later that year for a "National Assembly" which first met in December of that year. Twenty months later, the body was dissolved by the Emir because radical members made it impossible for the executive to function properly. From that time on, the country is governed by those decrees of the emir that are carried out by the cabinet. In 1975, trade unions and strikes were banned by law. During the 1970s and 1980s, Bahrain achieved tremendous economic growth due to the high oil price and excellent infrastructure, the best in the entire Gulf region. A threat to the regime appeared to be the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran and the subsequent First Gulf War between Iran and Iraq (1980-1988). Not only did Bahraini Shiites of Iranian descent argue for an Islamic state, Iran also appeared to be renewing its historic claims to Bahrain.

Internal riots and democratic developments

Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa BahrainPhoto: Public domain

Recent is the status as storagepoil has declined, but the economy is increasingly focused on the development of industry and the service sector (including tourism) and as a result, people have become less dependent on oil. Bahrain, for example, has become one of the region's major financial centers as Beirut's successor in Lebanon. In the late 1980s, the Gulf region was experiencing a lot less economic growth, but Bahrain remained calm and prosperous. For example, the shipping industry did good business in the mid-1980s, repairing tankers hit in the Iran-Iraq war. In 1985 a conspiracy against the state was dismantled. Bahrain made significant arms purchases from the United States and provided facilities to the US naval units that patrolled the Gulf in 1987 and 1988. Remarkable was the rapprochement with Iran;in December 1990, the Iranian Foreign Minister visited Bahrain. The King Fahd Highway between Bahrain and Saudi Arabia in 1986 gave a boost to the business world and tourism. In the early 1990s, Bahrain had close ties with Iran, while relations with Iraq reached an all-time low following a missile attack on Bahrain in the Second Gulf War. After the Gulf War, Bahrain became the base of the United Nations weapons inspectors. In 1999 the Bahraini government asked for these bases to be closed. In 1991 conflict arose with Qatar over the Hawar Islands and the Fasht al-Dibal and Jaradah sandbanks, where oil had been found;Qatar claimed sovereignty over the islands. In 1994 the Emir refused to accept a petition with 25,000 signatures calling for more democracy. Dissatisfaction with this sparked some riots in Shia villages west of Manama in November 1994. The main demands of the protesters were restoration of the sidelined parliament and a better distribution of prosperity (30% of the Shia population was unemployed). 16 people were killed and many hundreds of people were arrested. In 1995 and 1996 there was also unrest and several bomb attacks were committed and foiled. The government accused Iran of complicity. In December 1996 Bahrain boycotted the Gulf Cooperation Council Summit (GCC: together with Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Qatar) in Doha (Qatar) ) due to a border dispute with this country. Relations with other Gulf countries also deteriorated as a result of this border conflict. Bahrain and Qatar regained diplomatic ties in 1997. In 1997 young unemployed people started fires in protest against discrimination against the Shia majority (the ruling al-Khalifa family is Sunni) and the lack of democratic reforms. The large number of jobs occupied by Asians were also a thorn in their side. Bahrain again accused Iran of training and financially supporting the rioters and cracked down on the dissidents. Bahrain recalled its ambassador from Tehran. Sheikh al-Khalifa did decide to include members of the opposition in his government. After that it remained quiet and violence is rare. In 1998 the visit of the Iranian former president Rafsanjani led to a cautious rapprochement between the two countries. The departure of the infamous head of the Bahraini Security Forces, Briton Ian Henderson, was much appreciated by the (Shia) opposition, as was the signing by the Bahraini government of the UN Convention against Torture. In 2001, the International Court of Justice in The Hague assigned the Hawar Islands to Bahrain. The ongoing conflict with Qatar ended with domestic politics dominated by the Al-Khalifa family and some important Sunni trading families. The opposition is divided and includes small, more radical opposition groups. The main opposition party is the Bahrain Freedom Movement (BFM). After his death in 1999, Sheikh Isa was succeeded by his son Sheikh Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa. The latter has been actively involved in political decision-making. In February 2001 he won widespread opposition support for a political reform plan, thus initiating the process of political liberalization. In line with this reform plan, the Emir approved in February 2002 a constitutional amendment that changed his country's form of government to a constitutional monarchy and conferred the title of King on the Head of State. It also called municipal elections for May 2002 and general elections for October 24, 2002. The new constitution granted suffrage to both men and women. These changes laid the foundations for a democratic system in Bahrain.

Parliamentary elections will again be held in October 2006 in which the Shias, who refused to participate in the 2002 elections, will participate. This commitment was made, after some amendments to the Societies Law were recently accepted. However, the opposition continues to pursue wider parliamentary powers and less influence from the Consultative Council (Shoura Council).

The elections finally took place in November 2006 and the Shias have 40% of the vote won. Their leader Jawad bin Salem al-Oraied is appointed Deputy Prime Minister. In September 2007, thousands of illegal immigrants were given amnesty. In May 2008, Houda Nonoo was appointed Bahrain's Ambassador to the United States. She is the first Jewish representative of an Arab country. In April 2009, the king pardoned 170 prisoners suspected of endangering national security. In 2011 there are protests in Bahrain in the aftermath of the Arab Spring, the protests are quashed but are repeated during the 2012 Grand Prix. to contain. At the end of 2013, the (Shia) opposition stopped talks with the government. Reconciliation talks in 2014 also fail, the November 2014 parliamentary elections are dismissed by the opposition as a farce. In August 2016, a UN-appointed commission accused the government of systematically harassing the Shia opposition. In 2017, there are further actions by the government against the Shia minority. A huge new oil field is discovered in 2018, and Ali Salman, the opposition leader, is sentenced to life in November 2018 for alleged espionage for Qatar. On September 15, 2020, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates signed a peace agreement with Israel in Washington DC.

BahrainiPhoto: Al Jazeera Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic no changes made

The population of Bahrain is 1,410,942 people (2017) who generally live in the northern part of Bahrain Island. Bahrain is an extremely densely populated country.
Bahraini is approximately 46% of the population. The rest of the population includes migrant workers, Indians, Pakistanis, Iranians, Omani, Palestinians, other Arabs and a limited number of Europeans. Manama is a very cosmopolitan city with more Western, Indian, Pakistani and Filipino businessmen and shop owners than Bahraini.
Almost 90% of the population lives in the cities and most of that in the capital Manama (approx. 262,000 inhabitants) and in Muharraq (approx. 90,000 inhabitants) connected by a bridge on the island of the same name. The strong population growth has led to a housing shortage and to alleviate this need, the satellite city of Isa-Town has been built 25 km from Manama, which currently can accommodate 170,000 inhabitants.
The average life expectancy at birth in 2017 was approx. 79 years (men 76.8 years and women 81.3 years). As a result of labor immigration from abroad, the number of men significantly exceeds the number of women. The population growth was 2.26% in 2017.

The official language and most common colloquial language is Arabic;English is the language in international traffic. There are different types of Arabic. Classical Arabic, the language of the Quran, is the basis of all contemporary dialects of spoken and written Arabic. A modernized and somewhat simplified form of Classical Arabic is the language of the Middle Eastern class being studied. This modern one, the Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), is used in newspapers and on radio and television. It is also spoken by Arabs from different countries. Such a common language is necessary because the different dialects often differ too much from each other.

Arabic AlphabetPhoto Public Domain

Some Arabic words and phrases:
One- waHid
Two- idhnin
Three- dhladha
Hello- as-salama alaykum
Welcome- ahlan wa sahlan or marHaba
Yes- aiwa/na'am
No- la
Thank you- shukran or mashkur to a man
mashkura to a woman;maskurin to a group
I come from Europe- orobba
I come from the Netherlands- holanda
I come from South Africa- jinub afriqye
I come from America- amrika
What does that mean?- shu ya'ani?
Car- sayyara
Bus- bass
Boat- markab
East- sharug
West- gharub
Lunch- al-ghade
Dinner- al-ashe
Potato- batates
Tea- chai
Coffee- qahwa
January- yanayir
December- disimbir
Bahrain is coming from "bahr-ein" which means "two seas".

Al Fateh Mosque BahrainPhoto: Jacobs- Creative Bees Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

Approx. 82% of the population is Islamic, of which 60% Shia and 40% Sunnis. Indeed, Islam consists of two schools of thought, the Shia (shiat Ali = the party of Ali, the fourth caliph who became his successor after the death of Muhammad) who believe that Muhammad's successors should only come from the family of Muhammad, and the Sunnis (Soena = custom) accepting the succession of the Umayyads, the rulers of Damascus.
Eight percent of the population is Christian and there are also small groups of Jews, Buddhists, Bahai and Hindus. The smaller group of Sunni Muslims, to which the ruling family also belongs, is the most influential, and this is also one of the reasons for an increasing separation between the two groups. Another cause is of an economic nature. The Sunnis hold most of Bahrain's wealth while the Shia majority have little or nothing to say.
Freedom of religion exists.

State organization

Bahrain Coat of ArmsPhoto: Public Domain

Bahrain is an absolute monarchy and the only Gulf state with very strict birthright rules that make the successor always the eldest son. The emir Sheikh Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa is currently in power who succeeded his father Isa bin Sulman al-Khalifa in March 1999. The Emir's uncle, Sheikh Khalifa bin Sulman al-Khalifa has been the Prime Minister for years. The emir appoints and dismisses cabinet members, although this is uncommon.
In 1971, Isa bin Sulman al-Khalifa, ruler since 1961, proclaimed Bahrain an independent state. For the first time in Bahrain's history, the 1973 constitution provided for a parliament, in which the twelve cabinet members appointed by the sheik also sat ex officio. In August 1975, after an alleged coup attempt, parliament was dissolved and the 1973 electoral law, which declared all adult male Bahrainis eligible to vote, was suspended and political parties and trade unions were banned.
1996 was followed by Oman and Saudu Arabia established a Consultative Council appointed by the Emir, advising the government but not a legislative has power. This 40-member council meets once a week. The members are appointed by the emir for a period of four years and are a reasonable reflection of society, but they do not include women. The opposition operating at home and abroad finds this a typical form of sham democracy (political parties are still prohibited). The National Action Charter appointed a bicameral legislature on December 23, 2000, which was approved in a referendum on February 14, 2001. In November 2002 the sheik appointed six women to the first chamber of parliament. He wanted to give the women the opportunity to prove that they could make a significant contribution to politics.
Sheik Isa bin Sulman al-Khalifa has held the title of Emir (Prince) since August 1972. Many of his family members hold key positions in government and administration, including major ministerial posts. The emir and his ministers still hold traditional majlis sessions, in which the population can turn to them directly with petitions.
The population demands democratic reforms, including through demonstrations and bomb attacks, which have already killed 25 people since 1994. The turmoil has caused a lot of capital to flow away from the once thriving banking center. Bahrain consists of twelve regions: Central Bahrain, East Bahrain, Hamad Town, Hidd Town, Isa Town, Jidhafs, Manama, Muharraq, North Bahrain, Rifa'a, Sitra and West Bahrain. The current political situation is described in the chapter history.

Education

Bahrain UniversityPhoto: Rick's images Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

Education is free for all residents in Bahrain. School is compulsory from age six to fifteen. There are several international schools that teach in other languages, including English, Japanese, French, Hindi and other Asian languages. As a result, only 16% of the population is illiterate and education is the second largest cost item on Bahrain's budget after security and defense. Many children nevertheless go abroad for their studies, especially to the United States and Great Britain. Bahrain has two universities, Bahrain University with approx. 9000 students and the Arabic Gulf University with approx. 700 students.

Pearl fishing

Pearls BahrainPhoto: Public domain

Until oil was discovered in 1932, pearl fishing was the main economic activity in Bahrain. Around 1900, half of the male population was employed in pearl fishing and related industries. Pearl fishing has been part of the Bahraini economy since the 3rd century BC. and in the early 19th century, pearls and dates were in fact all they had to offer the rest of the world.
The pearl divers had a very hard job and the earnings were not very high. As so often, only wealthy families benefited from the pearl industry. No wages were paid either, but they shared in the profits that were made that season. Bahrain also served as the "trans-shipment point" of all pearls produced in the Gulf from the 19th century onwards.
Around 1930, the Japanese invented a method to grow pearls, and with the economic depression, Bahrain fell away as a major international pearl producer.

Oil

Bahrain First Oil Well memorialPhoto: David Brossard Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic no changes made

In 1932, on-shore oil was found in Bahrain (Awali oil field), making it one of the first countries in the Middle East where petroleum was found. Since that time, the oil industry and related industries have been the pivot of the Bahraini economy. In 1998 Bahrain produced 37,200 barrels of oil per day, very little compared to the United Arab Emirates and Saudu Arabia pumping up more than two million barrels a day. Furthermore, a great deal of crude oil from Saudi Arabia is refined and enters Bahrain via a submarine pipeline. The first oil refinery started as early as 1935.
In 1987, a new on-shore field at Jebel el-Doekhan was put into operation. The main concessionaire was the American Bahrain Petroleun Company, with which the Bahraini government reached an agreement in 1974 on a government share of 60%. In 1979 Bahrain took over the entire company. All crude oil production and crude oil supplied from Saudi Arabia is now wholly owned by the Bahrain National Oil Company (BANOCO), as well as the greatly increased production of natural gas.
Together with Saudi Arabia, Bahrain operates the off shore-located field Abu Safah. At the moment 10% of the working population is still employed in the petroleum industry.

Other economic activities

Bahrain has limited oil reserves and was therefore soon forced to broaden the base of its economy.
The war in Lebanon(1975-1989 ) led Bahrain to make a successful attempt to take over the role of the region's banker. In the course of the 1970s and 1980s, Bahrain has become the financial center of the Gulf States and an important commercial center in the Middle East. Bahrain is attractive to foreign investors because of its tax-free and surplus of cheap natural gas. . Under the January 1976 trade law, domestic companies must hold a majority share of Bahrain-based foreign companies. However, this law does not apply to banking institutions.

Tourism is an obvious alternative to the oil. From the early 1980s, the focus was on tourism and now around two million tourists a year come to Bahrain. Most tourists come from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, but they also try to attract tourists from many other countries.
Tourism contributes 9.2% to the gross national product and provides employment for 17% of the working population. The entire service sector, government and trade provides work for approximately 70% of the labor force.

Bahrain ExportPhoto: Louis Waweru Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

32% of the working population is employed in industry. For example, Bahrain has a large aluminum smelter, a paper mill, a ship repair company and an advanced dry dock for mammoth tankers up to 400,000 gross tons. The aluminum industry is one of the oldestthe country's most industrial activities. The production capacity is approximately 500,000 tons per year and it employs more than 2000 workers.
The manufacturing industry is still underdeveloped and consists of textiles, plastics, canned goods, beverages and light metal industry.
Besides oil Bahrain also has gas reserves of 150 billion m3, good for 20 years of production.

Through irrigation, fed by drilled wells, some agriculture is possible along the north coast, including dates, melons and tomatoes. Only eight percent of Bahrain's total area is suitable for agriculture. Unfortunately, the drought and lack of water are already causing problems. Efforts are increasingly being made to concentrate on crops that require little water, such as barley, oats and millet. Approx. 1% of the labor force is employed in the agricultural sector on approximately 900 farms.
Fishing is important for domestic consumption, but is threatened by pollution and overfishing. Other traditional livelihoods include boat building, weaving, reed matting and the aforementioned pearl fishing.

The main imports are crude oil (from Saudi Arabia), foodstuffs, machinery and transportation equipment. The United States, Great Britain and Japan are the largest import partners. The exports mainly consist of petroleum products, aluminum and textiles. Bahrain's largest export partners are Japan, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States.

King Fahd Causeway BahrainPhoto: Navin Shetty Brahmavar at engish wikipedia CCAttribution 3.0 Unported no changes made

Bahrain has very good infrastructure facilities. There is a modern network of highways and in 1986 the 25 km long dam and bridge connection with Saudi Arabia, the "King Fahd Causeway", built largely by Dutch companies, was completed. Until then it was the most expensive land connection in the world. The dam bridges the protected island of Umm Nasan.
Public transport consists mainly of taxis and private bus companies connecting most cities. Besides the natural harbor of Khor Khaliya, the very modern seaport of Mina Sulman in particular makes Bahrain one of the most important shipping centers of the Middle East. The oil products are mainly exported from Sitra.
The modern international airport at Muharraq fulfills a central function in international air traffic.

Bahrain Artificial IslandsPhoto: Alhaddadm at the english language wikipedia CCAttribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

The best time to book a holiday in Bahrain is during the winter months, the 'coldest' month is January with an average maximum temperature of 20°C.
Bahrain has two UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Qal'at al-Bahrain and seventeen buildings typical of Bahrain's cultural tradition of pearl fishing. That tradition also includes three oyster beds and the Qal'at Bu Mahir fort. Qal'at al-Bahrain is a so-called 'tell', an artificial hill formed by successive human populations, dating back to around 2300 BC.

Besides the oil extraction Bahrain's economy is also in full swing due to tourism. The coastline is dotted with luxury hotels and there are some beaches, including the famous Al Jazayir. Divers marvel at the many coral species, the large oysters and the ship and airplane wrecks. Once a year, Bahrain is in the spotlight worldwide when the Formula 1 spectacle lands on the small island nation.

Bahrain National MuseumPhoto: Anthony DeCosta Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

A visit to the Bahrain National Museum is certainly worthwhile, as are the impressive 16th century Bahrain Fort in Karbabad Village and the remains of the Barbar Temple, which was built between 3000 and 2000 BC. built. More of this time is the 25-kilometer King Fahd Causeway between Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, one of the most expensive bridges ever built. Middle Eastern art can be found in the Albareh Art Gallery in Adliya, international art in the La Fontaine art center in Manana.

The Al Fateh Mosque in Juffair has the largest fiberglass dome in the world, and in the Beit Al Qur'an building there is a library with a special collection of manuscripts about the Koran. Nature lovers can head to Al Areen Nature Reserve, and a 400-year-old acacia, the Tree of Life, is on average 300 years older than normal acacias, without a visible water source.

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Sources

Robison, G. / Bahrain, Kuwait & Qatar
Lonely Planet

Whetter, L. / Live & work in Saudi & the Gulf
Vacation Work

CIA - World Factbook

BBC - Country Profiles

Last updated May 2021
Copyright: Team Landenweb