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ANGOLA
 

Geography and Landscape

Geography

Angola is located in the southwest of Africa, south of the equator, and is bordered to the north by the Democratic Republic of Congo(Congo-Kinshasa, 2421 km, excluding Cabinda) and the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville, 231 km), in the south at Namibia (1427 km) and in the southeast at Zambia (1065 km). In the west, Angola borders the Atlantic Ocean with a coastline of approximately 1,650 km. The vast country stretches inland for about 960 kilometers.
Bordering the Atlantic Ocean, the Cabinda exclave is an Angolan province sandwiched between the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south and east and the Republic of the Congo to the north. The former Portuguese protectorate (Portuguese Congo) has an area of 7270 km².
The area of Angola is 1,246,700 km². Worldwide, 23 countries are larger than Angola, in Africa there are only six countries, Algeria (2,381,741 km²), Democratic Republic of Congo (2,344,858 km²), Sudan (1,886,068 km²), Libya (1,759,540 km²), Chad (1,284,000 km²) and Niger (1,267,000 km²), greater than Angola.

Angola Satellite PhotoPhoto: Public domain

Landscape

Highest mountain in Angola Morro de MocoPhoto: Benjamin Stauch in the public domain

The landscape of Angola is mainly characterized by three major landscape types: the low-lying coastal strip, the hills and mountains and a vast plateau. The coastal strip in western Angola ranges in width from just 25 kilometers in the Benguela region to 150 kilometers in the Luanda region in the Cuanza River valley.
East of the coastal strip begins a strip of hills and mountains., about 135 kilometers wide in the north and only 30 kilometers wide in Central Angola and to the south. North of the Cuanza River, the lowlands gradually change into a hilly landscape with a height of about 500 meters. South of the Cuanza River, the landscape rises spectacularly fast to heights of up to 2,400 meters in the Serra da Chela mountain range in Huíla province.
The rest of Angola, about 2/3 of the country, is occupied by the high-altitude Biéplateau, part of the Central African Plateau, which stretches from the south of the Democratic Republic of Congo to Namibia. The average height of the plateau is 1828 meters;the higher parts have an average height of 2500 meters. The highest mountain in Angola is Morro de Moco, located in the province of Huambo, with a height of 2619 meters. Other high mountains in Angola are the Lupangue (2554 m), the Ungungi (2511 m), the Senha (2494 m), Mbuindo (2480 m), Vavele (2479 m), Chalima (2478 m), Catchimanha (2451 m), Tchila (2,442 m) and Sacotiquite (2,438 m).
In the southwest of Angola is another offshoot of the Namib Desert or Namib, which extends to the Angolan city of Namibe. The northern part of this desert is also called Kaokoveld Desert and consists of gravel plains, hills, valleys, sand dunes and sand plains.

 Namib Desert in Angola
Photo: Erik Cleves Kristensen Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

Angola's longest river is the Cuanza
Photo: jlrsousa, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic no changes made

Angola has a network of rivers, most of which originate in the mountain region. The country's main rivers are the Cuanza (Kwanza) and Kunene (Cunene). The Cuanza flows to the north, the Kunene to the south, but both eventually flow into the Atlantic Ocean. The Cuanza is the longest (950 km) river entirely in Angola. The Kunene (1050 km) forms in the south of Angola the border with Namibiaa and never dries up in summers with normal rainfall, unlike most other rivers of Angola.
The Cuanza is navigable from the coast for transport purposes for a little over 200 kilometers, the other rivers of Angola are hardly usable for that purpose, but are used for irrigation and hydroelectricity, among other things. Other important rivers of Angola are the Cubango, Cuando, Cassai, Cuito and Chicapa. The border with the Democratic Republic of Congo is formed by the mighty Zaïre (aka Congo).

Climate and Weather

Climate table Luanda, capital of Angola
Photo: Hedwig in Washington, CCs Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

The climate of Angola varies with elevation and depends on latitude, but is most affected by the relatively cool Benguela Gulf Stream, which is particularly the temperature on the coastal strip. bearable and the rainfall limited. In a broad sense, Angola can be divided into four climatic zones: the north, with heavy rainfall and high temperatures;the central plateau, quite dry with average temperatures around 19°C and cold nights;the cool and relatively dry coastal plain;and finally an offshoot of the Namib desert in the south of Angola with drought and very high temperatures.
Angola has two seasons: the rainy summer season officially starts on September 15th. The hottest months are September and October, the rain starts to take on severe form from November to May. The dry and cooler season is also called 'cacimbo' and lasts from May to September. This period is characterized by gray skies and heavy morning mist, which often only dissolves around noon. In the capital Luanda, not a drop of rain falls during this period. July and August are the coolest months. The provinces with the most rainfall are Cabinda, Malanje, Uíge, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Moxico, Cuando Cubango and Cunene.

 Benggala Gulf Stream, influence the climate of Angola Photo: Castell Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International no changes made
North of Angola, where the highlands no longer rise above 1000 meters, and in the exclave Cabinda, has a tropical climate with a rainy season that lasts from mid-October to mid-May in the west and from mid-September to April in the east. More than 1000 mm of precipitation falls in this part of Angola every year. In the west the sun shines relatively little, from February to June only six hours a day, from July to January only four or five hours a day. This is due to the heavy clouds that hang over the area, even in the dry season. In the east, the sun shines much longer on average, especially in the dry season.

Plants and Animals

Plants

Angola is home to at least 8,000 plant species, of which 1,260 are endemic, placing Angola in second place of countries in Africa with endemic plant species. About half of the country, including the inland high plains in the provinces of Moxico, Bié, Malanje and Lunda Norte, is covered with open tropical forest or 'miombo'. 30% of Angola is covered with savannahs or dry tropical forest;5% of the inland plateau and the provinces of Huambo, Bié, Kwanza Sul and Huíla are covered with grassland and meadows;2% of the country is covered with tropical rainforest or 'maiombe'. This rainforest is home to special tree species, including the most expensive and second most expensive wood species in the world, respectively from the m'pingo or (African) grenadilla and the African sandalwood tree Osyris lanceolata, and also the ebony tree.

M'pingo, a vn the most expensive woods in the world Photo: Abu Shawka, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International no changes made.

Tropical rainforest can still be found in the provinces of Uíge and Lunda Norte, but it is under severe threat from agricultural activities and logging. Other types of vegetation are the African mountain forest above an altitude of 2000 meters and the dense tree savannas, mainly with the mopane tree, a subfamily of the legume family. This landscape, in the south of Angola in dry, warm areas between 200 and 1150 meters high, is mainly in the front of Cuando Cubango and the Cunene provinces. Growing as a shrub and tree, the mopane can reach heights of up to 18 meters and is an important food source for a variety of animals, including elephants and the night peacock caterpillar.

Mopane forestPhoto: Van Staden Joggie CC license Attribution- Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made.

A unique plant, the tumboa (Weltwitschia mirabilis), grows in the Namib Desert, 0.5% of the surface of Angola and located in the southwest of Angola. This plant has broad leaves of several meters in length that lie on the desert soil.

Weltwitschia Mirabilis AngolaPhoto: Freddy Weber in the public domain
The African baobab or monkey bread tree is also fairly widespread in the dry semi-arid climate north, east and especially south of the capital Luanda.
In Angola, the tree, with a trunk circumference of up to seven meters and a height of up to 25 meters, is known under the Kimbundu name 'imbondeiro'. The tribe is home to thousands of gallons of water during the rainy season and the seed and fruit are also eagerly utilized by the local population.

 Imbondeiro or African baobab
Photo: Alfred Weidinger, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

Animals

It is estimated that Angola is home to 275 mammal species, 78 amphibian species, 227 reptile species (19 of which are endemic), 915 bird species and 300 insect species. The best place to see these animals in their natural habitat are the six national parks, not all of which are in great shape.

The national parks Mupa, Cameia and Bicuar can really only be regarded as national parks on paper;resources, infrastructure, conservation and information are seriously inadequate, poaching and environmental degradation through human intervention are the order of the day. The Iona National Park, Cangandala National Park and the Kissama National Park are doing better, only the latter park is allowed for tourists and facilities are available.

Angola's national animal is the endangered giant sable antelope, with horns up to 1.5 meters long and found in a small area between the city of Cuango and the Luando River.

 giant saber antelope, national animal of Angola
Photo: Charles J. Sharp CCAttribution-Share Alike 4.0 International no changes made

Only the English name of a number of animals below is known

mammals
great otter shrewCongo gold moleshort-nosed elephant shrew
South African Elephant ShrewElephant Shrewfour-toed elephant shrew
aardvarksouthern treetop tiesteppe or yellow spot tie
Cape cliff badger, dassie or rock badgerelephant savannaWest African manatee
golden angwantibopottoSouth African galago
dwarf galagosouthern keel rivet galagoswamp monkey
Dwarf Meerkatmalbrouckred-tailed meerkat
gag meerkatdiadem meerkatbrazzameerkat
big white-nosed meerkatcrown or Graymeer catmantle or gray-cheeked mangabey
crested mangabeyyellow baboonbear or Cape Baboon
southern frilly monkeywestern gorillachimpanzee

 southern frilly monkey (Colobus angolensis) is almost non-existent in Angola, despite the name
Photo: Ryan E. Poplin, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Genericno changes made.

mammals
Bocage's mole-ratDamara molratMechow's mole-rat
rock or dassieratLord Derby's scaly-tailed squirrelbeecroft spiny-tailed squirrel
springhaasdamar round squirrelFunisciurus bayonii
congo squirrelfire-footed rope squirrellittle solar squirrel
Smith's bush squirreloil palm squirrelAngolan African dormouse
Kellen's dormousesmall-eared dormouseMonard's dormouse
Rock dormouseStone dormouseAnkole molrat
pygmy rock mouseShortridge's rockmousegray climbing mouse
dorsal stripeNyika climbing mouseAfrican tree mouse
gerbil or long-eared owlgambia hamsterratSouth African race mouse
dorsal grass mousestriped grass mousemany-nipple mouse
African Dwarf MouseAfrican Red-nosed Ratstripe mouse

Rock or badger ratio
Photo: Vernon Swanepoel CC License Attribution 2.0 Unported no changes made

mammals
Woosnam's broad-headed mouseHildegarde's broad-headed mouseMiddle African Rabbit
Jameson's red rock hareCape Hareblack-tailed tree rat
South African hedgehogreddish-gray musk shrewheather shrew
bicolored musk shrewlesser red musk shrewmoonshine shrew
swamp musk shrewblackish white-toothed shrewAfrican black shrew
African giant shrewsmall-footed shrewRoosvelt's shrew
lesser gray-brown musk shrewturbo shrewgreater dwarf shrew
climbing shrewpalm fox (photo)Angolan epauletted fruit bat
Peters's epauletted fruit batlesser Angolan epauletted fruit batWahlberg's epauletted fruit bat
Dobson's epauletted fruit batFranquetvleerhondhammerhead bat
angolaroezetHayman's dwarf epauletted fruit batsmall epaulette bat
collared batD'Anchieta's fruit batnijlroezet or nijlrousette
African Long Tongue Flying FoxDamara woolly batAngolan hairy bat
Rufous mouse-eared batwelwitsch batsilvered bat
Beatrix's batMachado's butterfly batbutterfly bat
Anchieta's pipistrellebroad-headed pipistrelleAngolan long-eared bat
Moloney's mimic batCape serotineyellow serotine
banana dwarf batsmallest batZulu serotine
Schlieffen's batRüppell's pipistrellerusty pipistrelle
white-bellied lesser house batdark-winged lesser house batwhite-bellied yellow bat
Natal long-fingered batAnsorge's free-tailed batNigerian free-tailed bat
little free-tailed batangola free-tailed batwhite-bellied free-tailed bat
large-eared free-tailed batEgyptian free-tailed batAfrican sheath-tailed bat
Pel's pouched batmauritiusgrafvbatBate's slit-faced bat
shaggy slit-nosed batintermediate slit-faced batlarge-eared slit-faced bat
dwarf slit-faced batTheban slit-nosed batGeoffroy's horseshoe bat
Darling's horseshoe batDent's horseshoe batRüppell's horseshoe bat
lander horseshoe noseSwinny'shorseshoe batSundevall's roundleaf bat
giant roundleaf batNoack's roundleaf batthree-leaf bat

Palm Meat Dog
Photo: Fritz Geller- Grimm, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic no changes made

mammals
giant pangolinTemmincks, Cape or steppe pangolinslong-tailed pangolin
tree pangolinminke whaleAntarctic Minke Whale
sei whaleBrydevinvisblue whale
fin whalehumpback whalesouthern right whale or Australian whale
sperm whaledwarf sperm whaledwarf sperm whale
Blainville's beaked whaleGray's beaked whaleCuvier's dolphin
Haviside dolphinrough-toothed dolphintumbler
slender or Pantropian spotted dolphinstriped dolphinAtlantic Spotted Dolphin
long-beaked or spinner dolphinsarawak dolphin or Fraser's dolphinkiller whale or killer whale
dwarf friendblack sword whaleIndian Pilot Whale
white-lipped dolphin
cheetah or cheetahcaracalAfrican Golden Cat
black-footed catAfrican Wildcatserval
lionleopard or pantherAfrican Civet
miombogenetgenetkatrustgenet
pardelrollerswamp mongooseangolakoesimanse
fox mongoose or red meerkatAngolan slender mongooseslender mongoose
dwarf mongooseEgyptian ichneumonwhite-tailed mongoose
zebra mongoose or mungogray meerkatmeerkat
spotted hyenabrown hyena or beach wolfaardwolf
Cape or Kamavosstriped jackalblack-backed jackal
long-eared fox or spoon dogAfrican Wild Dog or Hyena Dogstriped polecat or zorilla
white-necked weaselhoney badger or rattlestain neck otter
Cape otterCameroon clawless otterCape fur seal
southern elephant seal

Swamp mongoose, predator Angola
Photo: Derek Keats (Johannesburg, South Africa), CC Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

mammals
Chapman's zebrasteppe or plain zebraHartmann's mountain zebra
south-central black rhinocerossouth-western black rhinoceroswarthog
wild boarhippowater dwarf deer
angolagiraffehartbeestLichtensteinantilope
blue, striped, or common wildebeestlyre antelope or topispringbok
Kirk's of damaradikdikklipspringerorbi
ibex antelope or ibexkaffir or African buffalobongo
eland antelopebushbucksitatunga or swamp antelope
big kudubay duikerblue diver
black-fronted diveryellowback duikercommon diver or buck
Roan or horse antelopesable or black horse antelopegems or skewers
impala or rooibokwaterbucklitschiewaterbok or lechwe
pukureed buck

angolagiraffe
Photo: Charles James Sharpe, CC Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International no changes made

The national bird of Angola is the red-crested turaco.

Red-crested turaco, national bird of Angola
Photo: William Warby, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

ostriches
ostrich
ducks
white-faced whistling duckred whistled duckwhite-backed duck
knobbeleendHartlaub's duckEgyptian Goose
Goose GooseAfrican Dwarf DwarfHottentottaling
Cape ShovelershovelerAfrican Black Duck
Yellow-billed DuckCape Tealred-billed pintail
brown crown duckAfrican spiny tail
guinea fowl
helmet guineafowlblack guinea fowlcrested guineafowl
crown guineafowl
pheasants
quailblue quailharlequin quail
Hartlaubs frankolineGrants franklinscaled franklin
red-beaked franklinSwierstra's frankolineSwainson's franklin
red-throated franklincrested franklinCoqui franklin
white-throated franklinLatham's franklinredwing franklin
Finsch 'frankolineArcher's frankoline
flamingos
flamingolittle flamingo
grebes
killergrebeblack-necked grebe
pigeons
rock pigeonspeckled pigeonAfrican wood pigeon
olive pigeonbronze-necked pigeoncinnamon tart
weeping dortelred-eyed rootCape Dove
palm turtle doveemerald speckled pigeonsteel spotted pigeon
tambourine pigeonBrehmer's pigeonmask dove
African Puffin *

African puffin, pigeon species in AngolaPhoto: Bernard DUPONT, CC Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic no changes made

sand fowl
namaqua sandgrouseyellow-throated sandgrousedouble band grouse
fur sand grouse
stairs
koritrapLudwigs trapDenham's trap
senegal trapRüppels trapSouth African crested staircase
botwana trapblack bellied stairs
turacos
giant turacogreen turacoSchalows tourism
black-billed turacoyellow-beaked turacored-crested turaco
Lady Ross's turacopale turaco
cuckoos
cuckooSenegalese spurgeonmonk spur cuckoo
copper-tailed spore cuckooeyebrow spur cuckooblack track cuckoo
yellow-billed blue malkohacrested cuckooLevaillant's cuckoo
jacobijnkoekoekFat-billed Cuckoodiederikkoekoek
Klaas' cuckooyellow-throated cuckooemerald cuckoo
gray long-tailed cuckoobrown long-tailed cuckooblack cuckoo
hermit cuckooAfrican Cuckoogabon spur cuckoo
nightjar
nightjarpennant nightjarred-faced nightjar
black-shouldered nightjarsooty nightjarroughenzorin nightjar
swamp nightjarrocky nightjarlong-tailed nightjar
gabon nightjar
swifts
common swiftiturigierzwaluwswift swift
Cassin's SwiftBöhms swiftshoagierzwauw
alpine swiftscaly mountain swiftbaobab swift
pale swiftCape Swiftladybird swallow
house swifthorus swiftraven swallow
African Palm Swift
down tail rails
pearl blotchbrown spotralEuropean robin
ugallaralBöhms ralstripesral
rales, cows and moorhens
African water railcorncrakeAfrican Corn Crake
spotted crakeAfrican Moorhenmoorhen
cooty cootAfrican Grouseemerald purple hair
nkulenguralAfrican Spotted CrakeBlack Spotted Crake
smallest moorhen
Grebe Coots
water treadle

pearl blotch
Photo: Francesco Veronesi: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic no changes made

cranes
gray crowned craneblack crowned cranewattled crane
grielen
watergrielCape Griel
Crocodile Guardians
crocodile guardian
avocets
kluutblack-winged stilt
Oystercatchers
OystercatcherAfrican Black Oystercatcher
lapwings and plovers
silver ploverAsian Golden PloverBlacksmith's Plover
Caspian plovershepherd's ploversand plover
ringed ploverthree-banded ploverForbes' plover
sand ploverCape Ploverlong-toed lapwing
spur lapwingwhite crested lapwingmourning lapwing
diadem kievitlelkievit
goldsnipe
goudsnip
jacanas
dwarf jacanalily runner
sandpipers and snip
curlewwhimbrelred-tailed godwit
black-tailed godwitstone runnerknot
ruffcurved sandpiperthree-toed sandpiper
spotted sandpiperlittle sandpiperpoelsnip
Afrikaanse snip *terekruiterrosy phalarope
sandpiperwitgatAmerican Woodland Rider
green-legged riderpool riderforest rider
redshank
buttonquail
striped button quailnatalfight quail
racing birds and fork-tailed plovers
rosse renvogelTemminck's renvogeldouble-banded racing bird
three-banded run birdbronze-winged running birdfork-tailed plover
black-tailed ploverrockforktail plovergray fork-tailed plover
hunters
Sub-Antarctic Great Skuamiddle fighterlittle hunter
smallest hunter

African snipe occurs in Angola
Photo: Derek Keats, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

Shoebill

gulls
fork-tailed gullgray-headed gullblack-headed gull
Little GullFranklin's Gulllesser black-backed gull
kelpgullnoddyvariegated stern
Little Terndamarasternlaughsern
giant ternblack starwhite-winged tern
white-faced ternRose sterncommon tern
arctic ternroyal terncrested tern
sandwich ternAfrican scissor beak
tropic birds
white-tailed tropicbirdred-billed tropicbird
pinguïns of geese
black-footed penguinïn
albatross
large albatrossyellow-billed albatrosgray-headed albatros
white-headed albatrosSalvins albatrosblack-browed Albatross
royal albatros
southern storm petrels
Wilson's Petrel
northern storm petrels
petrelpale storm petrel
petrels and shearwaters
southern giant petrelnorthern giant petrelCape Petrel
long-winged petreldown petrelAntarctic prion
white chin petrelKuhl's Shearwatergreat shearwater
gray shearwaterArctic shearwater
storks
African gaperblack storkAbdim's stork
bishop's storkstorksaddle-billed stork
African MarabouAfrican nimmerzat
gannets
GannetCape Gannetbrown gent
snake-necked birds
African snake-necked bird
cormorants
African Pygmy CormorantCormorant Cormorantgreat cormorant
Cape CormorantCormorant
pelicans
pink pelicanlittle pelican
shoe-billed stork
hammerhead
hammerhead

Shoebill, Bird of Angola
Photo: Bildflut in the public domain

herons
bitternLittle BitternAfrican Little Bittern
African Tiger BitternBlue HeronBlack-headed Heron
giant heronpurple herongreat egret
middle egretlittle egretSharpes heron
black heronCattle Egretral heron
madagascarral heronred-bellied heronmangrove heron
kwakwhite-backed quail
ibises and spoonbills
black ibissacred ibisscaly ibis
hadada-ibisAfrican Spoonbill
secretary bird
secretary bird
Ospreys
osprey
hawks
gray kitebald-headed harrierpalmgier
Egyptian vulturehoney buzzardAfrican Koekoekswouw
white-headed vultureoorgierkapgier
witruggierbateleurCongolese snake eagle
black-breasted snake eaglebrown snake eaglelittle gray snake eagle
bat kitecrowned eaglefighting eagle
African black crested eaglescreaming eagleWahlbergs arend
pygmy eagleAyres' hawk eaglesavanna eagle
steppearendCassin's crested eagleblack eagle
African hawk eaglelizard hawkdark chanting goshawk
chanterellegabarhavikMarsh Harrier
African Marsh Harriermarsh harrierMontagu's Harrier
robin hawkAfrican Hawkcameroon hawk
shikraEast African Dwarf Perwerovambosperwer
African Sparrowhawkblack hawklong-tailed hawk
black kiteAfrican Bald Eaglebuzzard
African Red-tailed Hawkaugur buzzard
Barn Owls
Cape Grainbarn owl
owls
scops owlAfrican scops owlsouthern white-faced owl
African Eagle Owllittle eagle owlShelleys oehoe
Verreaux 'oehoeakoenoehoeFur fishing owl
little fishing owlbeaded pygmy owlCape Little Owl
Ituri-dwarf owlAfrican Tawny OwlAfrican Short-eared Owl
mouse birds
brown mouse birdred-rumped mouse birdred-eared mouse bird
trogons
narinatrogonband-tailed trough
hopping
hop
tree hopping
green poopdamara-kickerblack boom hop
South African boomhop
horn raves
southern hornet
hornbills
dwarf stickcrest dockBradfields tok
colorful tokgray tokthick-billed stick
southern yellow-billed stickMonteiro's toksouthern red-billed stick
damaratokwhite-crested flock *black tok
blue-throated hornbillGray-eared Hornbillbrown-eared hornbill
white-legged hornbillhornbill hornbillwhistling hornbill

white-crested flock, bird from AngolaPhoto : Tony Hisgett, Creative Commons license Attribution 2.0 Unported no changes made

kingfishers
cobalt kingfisherluster kingfishermalechiette kingvogel
white-bellied kingfisherAfrican Pygmy Kingfisherbrown-headed kingfisher
brown-headed kingfisherwhite-throated kingfishergray-headed kingfisher
Common Kingfisherbridle kingfisherbrown-hooded kingfisher
striped kingfisherAfrican Giant Kingfisherpied kingfisher
bee-eaters
black bee-eaterwhite-hooded bee-eaterdwarf bee-eater
bluebird eaterSwallowtail Bee-eaterblack-headed bee-eater
white-throated bee-eatergreen bee-eatermadagascar bee eater
bee-eaterpink bee-eatersouthern crimson bee-eater
free-range
rollerfork tail rollerflag-tailed roller
red-crowned rollerbroad-beaked rollerblue-throated roller
African barbet
yellow-billed barbetcrested barbetgray-throated bristle nose
Sladens brush noseFur brush nosebald-headed barbet
yellow-headed barbetspeckled tinkerYellowback Kettler
red-rumped kickeryellow-throated kettleryellow-rumped kicker
yellow-fronted tickleryellow-spotted barbetpearl barred bird
miombabaardvogelCape Barbetwhite-headed barbet
black-necked barbetred-bellied barbetdouble-toothed barbet
honey guards
dwarf honeyguidegray honeyguidebrown back honeyguide
pale honeyguidesmallest honeyguidethick-billed honeyguide
little honeyguidespotted honeyguidescale honeyguide
big honeyguidelyre tail honeyguide
woodpeckers
African wryneckAfrican woodpeckerElliot's woodpecker
Cardinal Woodpeckerbearded woodpeckeryellow-backed woodpecker
gray green woodpeckerolive woodpeckerbrown-eared woodpecker
termite woodpeckergreen-backed woodpeckerBennett's woodpecker
golden-tailed woodpecker
falcons
African pygmy falconlesser kestrelkestrel
rock falcongreat kestrelgray kestrel
Dickinson's kestrelredhead smelekenred-legged falcon
amur redpootvalkfalconAfrican tree falcon
lannervalkperegrine falcon
Parrots of the Old World
redmask agapornispeach-faced lovebird
parrots of Africa and the New World
African Gray Parrotbrown parrotcongo parrot
Meyer's parrotRüppells parrot
screaming birds
Cape broadbillred-flanked broadbill
pittas
Angolapitta *
caterpillar birds
white-breasted stupid birdCape caterpillarCongolese caterpillar bird
red-shouldered caterpillarpurple caterpillar
Oriole and Figbirds
OrioleAfrican Orioleblue-winged oriole
mask orioleblack-winged oriole
Platysteiridae
wheatear shrikewattle and daub flycatcherAngolan Wattled Flycatcher
wattle-throated flycatcherwhite-rumped flycatcherRed-faced Flycatcher
Reichenows wattled flycatcheryellow-bellied wattle trapBoulton's flycatcher
white-sided flycatcherpririt flycatcherwestern savanna flycatcher
Angolan Flycatcher

Angolapitta
Photo: Derek Keats, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

catches
helmet shrikered-billed shrikerust-bellied shrike
Retz 'Shrikegable shrimpAfrican Shrike Flycatcher
black and white shrike flycatcher
Malaconotidae
broebroe *gambia powder puffer shrikepowder puff shrike
powdered down shrikegabon powder puffer shrikeSabines Powder Down Shrike
small chagrablackcartshagrabruinkoptsjagra
Lühders taxAngolan fiscalgabelafiskaal
tropical fishswamp fishBurchell's fiscal
black fish scalebokmakierieklauwiergray forest shrike
orange forest shrikemulticolored wood shrikeReichenows Wood Shrike
Spotted Wood Shrikeghost shrikeMonteiro's Shrike
drongo's
Sharpes drongoplain straight-tailed drongotreurdrongo
bosdrongohair tuft drongo
monarchs and fan-tailed flycatchers
blue-headed monarchroodbellyparadijsmonarchgabonparadijsmonarch
Bates' paradise monarchAfrican paradise monarch
shrike
red-backed shrikelesser gray shrikeMackinnon's Shrike
northern collared shrikesouthern collared shrikeSouza's Shrike
Red-headed Shrikemagpie shrikewhite-crowned shrike
crows
Cape rookschildraaf
Hyliotidae
yellow-bellied hyliotamashonahyliota
Stenostiridae
turquoise crested flycatcherwhite-tailed crested flycatcher
tit
Rüppells meesrust-bellied titblack tit
Carps meesgabonmeesmiombomees
acacia
possum tits
acacia gooseberryCape Hooded Tit
larks
chirpleeuweriknamible larkBengali long-billed lark
thrush larkbrown-backed larkgray-backed lark
sabota larksavanna larkred-necked lark
Angolan Larkrattle larksparrow lark
red-hooded larkStark's Larkred-billed lark
Nicatoridae
gray-throated nicatoryellow-throated nicator
Macrosphenidae
green curved beakyellow-bellied curmudgeonred-hooded curly-haired
Cape Cormorantred-rumped rock warblerbarred grass bird
yellow beaked warblergray long-beaked warblerangola long-beaked warbler
hyliameeshylia
Cisticolidae
Salvadori's eremomelayellow-bellied emomelagreen hijacker emomela
redcap emomelablackhalseremomelarusthalseremomela
white-throated priniamiombosavannezangerlittle savannah singer
banded savannah singerMekker-camaropteraHarterts camaroptera
yellow-browed camopteraolive green camaropterablack-throated apalis
mask apalisyellow-breasted apalisblack rumpa
Goslings apalisgray apalisbrown-headed papalis
rust-flankpriniablack-breasted priniazebraprinia
red mask grass warblerwhite-browed grass warblerflute grass warbler
forest warblerangola warblerlong-tailed warbler
rattle grass warblerred-tailed warblerrock warbler
bumblebee warblerHeuglin's grass warblerluapula grass warbler
marsh warblervalley grass warblertall grass warbler
natal grass warblerbrown-headed grass warblerblack-tailed warbler
short-winged grass warblergrass warblerkalaharigraszanger
tinktinkgrass warblerdambogras warblerbleach-head grass warbler
dwarf warbler

Broebroe, bird of Angola

Photo: Derek Keats, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made no changes made

Acrocephalidae
reed warbleryellow reed warblerCape Warbler
papyrus warblermockingbirdlittle reed warbler
short-winged reed warblergreat reed warbler
Locustellidae
fan-tailed warblercameroon shrub warblerswamp warbler
swallows
pale sand martinsand martinwhite-browed swallow
Brazza's swallowpale rock martinbarn swallow
Angolan Swallowblack swallowwhite-throated swallow
red-crowned swallowpearl-breasted swallowbenguelazwaluw
Cape Swallowsavannah swallowred-breasted swallow
mosque swallowred-throated cliff swallowCape Cliff Swallow
gabonzwaluwhouse martinjungle swallow
white-headed crested swallowblue-black crested swallowgray-rumped swallow
bulbul
thin-billed bulbulgoudbuulbuulblack-collared bulbul
redstart leafasmall green-tailed leafaHartlaubs buulbuul
yellow-necked bulbulyellow-breasted bulbulwhite-tailed bulbul
yellow collar bulbulspotted bulbulswamp bulwark
red-tailed bearded bulbulCassin's Bearded BulbulReichenows Bearded Bulbul
dwarf bulbulAnsorges buulbuulAlexanders buulbuul
yellow-bearded bulbulgreen bulbulsinging gabonloofbuulbuul
Cape Deciduous Buulangolaloofbuulbuulgray deciduous bulb
Cabanis loofbuulbuulsmall deciduous bulbXavier's loofbuulbuul
white-throated foliage bulbuulgray bulbulmask bulbul
forest warblers
whistlerfitisBoulton's forest warbler
Scotocercidae
roodkapelfmonarch
Sylviidae
Ethiopian monkstimaliagarden warblerCape Tit's Warbler
warbler
spectacled birds
Orange River BrilvogelAfrican spectacled bird *
Pellorneidae
brown frame timaliagray-cheeked timaliascaly bristles timalia
witbuiklijstertimalia
Leiothrichidae
southern white-rumped babblerblack bridle babblerarrowhead babbler
nude-cheeked babbler
real tree creepers
African spotted tree creeper
oxpeckers
red-billed oxpeckeryellow-billed ox picker
starlings
wattlebirdsamethyst starlingpale-winged starling
chestnut winged starlingwhite-winged starlingGreat-tailed Starling
purple-headed starlinggreat starlingMeves' long-tailed starling
gleaming starlingpintail starlinggreen-tailed starling
red-shouldered starling
thrushes
Fraser's Short-legged Thrushwhite-tailed thrushGurneys thrush
acacia thrushkurrichanelijsterCape Thrush
pelio thrush
flycatchers
Cape Flycatcherfantasy flycatchergray flycatcher
Cassin's flycatcherBöhms flycatcherberry flycatcher
dull blue flycatchermarico flycatcherpale flycatcher
thrower flycatcherwhite-browed forest flycatcherStricklands forest flycatcher
Gray-throated Flycatcherblackbird trapblue-gray flycatcher
herero WheatearCape Snake FlycatcherAngolan Helleborine Flycatcher
firecapaletheforest fan tailstripehead fan street
beard fan tailkalahari fan tailbrownback fan tail
white-brow fan tailgreyvleugeljanfrederikwhite-brow noise maker
red-head noise makerEdge noise makerwhite crown noise maker
cave noise makerzambesi palm thrushgabon palm thrush
bruinborstaletheBocages janfrederikgabela-akalat
pied flycatcherwhite flycatchercollared redstart
short-toed rock thrushmiomborot thrushAfrican Stonechat
karoospekvreterbacon eaterblack ant wheatear
Cape Ant Wheatearcongomier's wheatearmountain wheatear
Arnots ant wheatearwheatearnatural wheatear
izabeltrapeWhite-faced Wheatearred-tailed bacon eater

African spectacled bird, bird from Angola
Photo: Charles J Sharpe, CC Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International no changes made

honeysuckers
red-plume honey suckerAnchieta's honey extractorbrown honey sucker
violetback honey suckerviolet-tailed suckerscabbard honey ewer
gold band honey suckercollar honey suckerReichenbach's honey extractor
greenhead honey suckerBannerman's honey extractorbrown-backed honey sucker
olive green honey extractorcarmelite honeyzigergreen-throated honey sucker
amethyst honey suckerrobin honey suckerBocages honey extractor
bronze honey suckerolive-bellied honey suckerwestern miombo honey sucker
eastern miombo honey suckermountain honey suckerbig frilled honey sucker
marico honey suckerShelly honey suckerplain purple band honey sucker
Bouvier's honey extractorred-bellied honey suckergreen crown honey sucker
beautiful honey suckerangola honey suckerwhite-bellied honeysuckle
regalia honey suckersooty honey extractorBates' honey sucker
copper honey sucker
weavers
red-billed buffalo weaverbearded weavermahaliwever
rust cheek weaverredback weaverrepublican weaver
black-throated beauty weaverred-throated beauty weavercrested weaver
red-headed weaverscarlet weaverblack chin weaver
thin-beak weaverloangodunbekweverblack-necked weaver
spectacle weaverBocages weaversaffron weaver
king weaverbrown-eared weaversmall textor weaver
mask weavervelvet weaverlarge textor weaver
chestnut weavertricolor weaverwoudwever
brown-hooded weaverPreuss' weavermiombowever
brown weaverred-headed weaverred-billed weaver
short-tailed weavergrenadierweverred-fronted weaver
black firemanNapoleonwevergoldback weaver
velvet widavinkmirror widavinkyellow-backed widowl
red-throated widowlred-shouldered widowlHartlaubs widavink
rooster tail widowlthick-billed weaver
finches
whitekopnegervinkgray-headed niggerbrown-breasted nigger
white-breasted niggerant pickercollarastrild
Angolan astrildyellow-bellied chestnutgreen dropletastrild
Reichenows bergastrildblacktailastrildcinderella-astrild
swamp shakeoranjekaakjeSaint Helena Pheasant
blackcapastrildelfenastrildrobin blue beak
red-headed blue beakpurpleastrildAngolan Blue Pheasant *
blue pheasantgrenade trillslate gray astrild
red drop astrildbrown drip tapemelba-astrild
wenerastrildfire checkmarkbrown amaranth
dark red amaranthbleached amaranthpink amaranth
band finchroodkopamadinegolden belly
quail stretchgrasshopper flutterjust magpie
luster textgiant kitty
Viduidae
dominicanerwidabroadstaartparadijswidasmalstaartparadijswida
koningswidasteel finchgreen steel finch
purple steel finchkoekoekswever
sparrows
house sparrowrust sparrowCape Sparrow
gray-headed sparrowmozambiquemusCape Rock Sparrow
wagtails and squeakers
Cape Wagtailmountain wagtailyellow wagtail
African Pied Wagtailwhite wagtailcinnamon beep
forest beeperlong-beaked beeperbrown-backed pipit
vaalrivierpieperlong-legged pipitstriped beeper
boom beepershort-tailed pipitsavanna beeper
yellow-throated clawFülleborns langklauwred-throated long claw
Grimwoods langklauw
finches
mozambic ice creamdunbekcanarieyellow-crowned canary
mask canaryblack-throated canarysulfur canary
yellow-bellied canarywhite-throated canarymountain canary
black-cheeked canarystripe head canaryyellow-throated canary
buntings
Cabanis' buntingacacia gorsCape Bunting
lark buntingseven-barred bunting

Angolan Blue Pheasant
Photo: Hans Hillewaert, C C Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

reptiles
loggerhead sea turtlesoup or green sea turtlewarana or pygmy tortoise
Hawksbill (real) turtleleatherback turtlesmooth-edged hulled tortoise
spiny flapper tortoisepanther or leopard tortoiseAfrican Terrapin
Okavango hinged terrapinnatterjack box turtledwarf hinged terrapin
variable hinged terrapinbrown hooded turtleAfrican three claw
red-backed softshell turtle
Nile CrocodileCentral African slendersnouted crocodilewide-fronted crocodile
Angolan tree agamaground agamaAnchieta's agama
Congo agamaMucoso agamaspiny dragon
Schack's rock agama
Angola blunt-tailed worm lizardZambezi blunt-tailed worm lizardWelwitch's blunt-tailed worm lizard
Anchieta's spade-snouted worm lizardinfuscate spade-snouted worm lizardLuanda spade-snouted worm lizard
confusing spade-snouted worm lizardVanderyst's spade-snouted worm lizardBlack round-headed worm lizard
Kalahari round-headed worm lizard
Angolan chameleonpatch chameleonEtienne's chameleon
desert chameleonOwen's three-horned chameleonnorthern grass lizard
Cape Leg SnakeAngola girdled lizardMachado's girdled lizard
Kaokoveld girdled lizard
Bogert's flat geckoAnsorge's leaf-toed geckobutton-scaled gecko
Pulitzer's geckoFisher's geckoBayao's house gecko
Benguela house geckowestern house geckolong-headed house gecko
house geckoforest house geckoplume-tailed gecko
Angolan dwarf geckoBradfield's dwarf day geckoCape dwarf day gecko
Hewitt's punctate geckoAngola thick-toed geckoCaricul thick-toed gecko
Kaokoveld thick-toed geckopunctate thick-toed geckodesert gecko
Scherz's thick-toed geckorough-scaled thick-toed geckolarge-scaled thick-toed gecko
Kalahari ground geckoVan Zyl's web-footed geckocommon Namib day gecko
Barnard's Namib day geckoBenguella Namib day geckotwo-pored Namib day gecko
Boulton's Namib day geckomontane Namib day geckoAngolan Namib day gecko
blue-black shield lizardKalahari plated lizardLaurent's plated lizard
keeled plated lizardblack-lined plated lizardsand shield lizard
giant shield lizard *Ellenberger's snake lizard
bushveld lizardnorthern blue-tailed tree lizardwstern rough-scaled lizard
pale rough-scaled lizardCape rogh-scaled lizardOverlaete's rough-scaled lizard
small-scaled rough-scaled lizardshovel-snouted lizardreticulate desert lizard
rough-scaled desert lizardLaurent's sandfield lizardWestern sandfield lizard
Benguella sand lizardHaacke's sand lizardHuntley's sand lizard

Giant shield lizard, reptile AngolaPhoto: Bernard DUPONT, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic no changes made

reptiles
shorted-headed snake-eyed skinkCabinda snake-eyed skinkspeckle-lipped snake-eyed skink
Angolan snake-eyed skinkDe Witte's leaf-litter skinkHinkel's red-sided skink
Sundevall's writhing skinkAnchieta's snake skinkLunda western snake skink
Iven's water skinkwedge snouted skinkSenegal skink
Monard's skinkBayao's skinkHuila skink
Ovambo stree skinkBocage's skinkChimba skink
Damara skinkHoesch's skinkbronze rock skink
Angolan blue-tailed skinkspeckled-lipped skinkgrass skink
western three striped skinkspeckled skinkKalahari tree skink
African striped skinkAnsorge's rock skinkAngolan variable skink
Wahlberg's skink
African snake lizardlarge-scaled burrowing skinkwestern limbless skink
Angola burrowing skinkBayao's burrowing skinkCope's burrowing skink
Johnson's western burrowing skinkspeckled western burrowing skinkBogert's western burrowing skink
Rohan's western burrowing skinkRudebeck's western burrowing skink
Nile monitorsavanna monitor
Shaba thread snakePeter's thread snakeDamara thread snake
Benguela thread snakeAngolan beaked thread snakeAngolan blind snake
Angolan giant blind snakeblotched blian snakelined blind snake
Schmidt's blind snakeSchlegel's blind snakegiant blind snake
Leopoldville beaked blind snakeNamib dwarf pythonrock or hia roglyph python
southern African python

History

Angola Nzinga and Portuguese Peace NegotiationsPhoto : Public domain

In 1575 the Portuguese settled in Angola, in what is now Luanda. From this base on the coast, Portugal led a thriving slave trade. In the 19th century, Angola formally became a Portuguese colony and at the beginning of the 20th century, the interior also came into the hands of the Portuguese. From 1932 to 1974, the Portuguese dictator Salazar ruled and anti-colonial movements were brutally suppressed. Around 1960 an armed struggle against Portuguese rule began, waged by highly rival movements. The three most important of these were, first, the Marxist Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA) mainly supported by the southern tribes and communist allies;secondly, the União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA), supported by the Ovimbundu and the South African apartheid regime (UNITA) and thirdly, the Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola (FNLA) which its support is mainly among the northern tribes and anti-communist western countries. A nonviolent coup in Lisbon (the so-called Carnation Revolution) brought to power a government in favor of the independence of the colonies. On November 11, 1975, power was transferred to the MPLA and the People's Republic of Angola was proclaimed. The country became a one-party state with the MPLA as the only permitted party.

Independence certainly did not mean peace and stability to Angola. Under the Angolan liberation movements, the old rivalry flared up again and a very bloody civil war started which, with some interruptions, would last 27 years. The MPLA led the country according to Marxist-Leninist ideology until 1990. With the end of the Cold War, a multiparty system was introduced in 1991. But the peace that was made between both sides was short-lived. After the 1992 elections in which the MPLA came out as the winner, the battle flared up again. In the following years, UNITA, with the help of South Africa and the United States, conducted a very violent fight against the MPLA. This guerrilla war claimed the lives of hundreds of thousands of Angolans and caused many whites to leave the country. Moreover, it ruined the economy and much of the infrastructure. The 1994 'Lusaka Peace Agreement' has been consistently violated by both the MPLA and UNITA led by Jonas Savimbi.

Jonas Savimbi AngolaPhoto: Savimbi Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

Under pressure from the United Nations, a Government of Unity and National Reconciliation (GURN) was established in April 1997. However, the peace process reached a deadlock again in mid-1998. The UN tried to restart negotiations But the Angolan government refused to talk any longer with Savimbi, the leader of UNITA. At the end of 1998, the attack on the UNITA strongholds Andulo and Bailundo was launched, restarting the civil war. The rebels hit back hard. supervision of the implementation of the Lusaka peace process and the demobilization, both parties appeared to have rearmed themselves on a large scale, which meant that the confidence of the Angolan government in the role of the UN had completely disappeared and the mandate of the UN monitoring mission (MONUA ) was ended in February 1999. The humanitarian situation of the population had deteriorated dramatically.

At the end of the 1990s, UNITA was increasingly cornered. reefing and on February 22, 2002, leader Savimbi was killed in a shootout with the government army. Savimbi's death paved the way for peace negotiations with the now very weakened UNITA. These negotiations led to the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on April 4, 2002. The UNITA Party Congress was held in June 2003. At this congress, the former UNITA representative in Paris and London, Isaias Samakuva, elected new leader of UNITA.

Dos Santos and Lula Angola Photo : Wilson Dias/ABr Photo: Wilson Dias/ABr Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Brazil no changes made

Meanwhile, the security situation in most parts of the country has greatly improved as a result of peace. However, a large part of the population is afraid of the outcome of the upcoming elections. However, conflict between government forces and the FLEC rebels for independence continues in Cabinda province. In February 2007, President dos Santos says he will organize parliamentary elections in 2008 and presidential elections in 2009. In June 2008, the parliamentary elections will be greenlit later in the year, the first elections since 1992. In September 2008, President dos Santos's MPLA won the elections with more than 80% of the vote. President dos Santos proposes to postpone the elections for years to come. Parliament approved this in January 2010. Elections will be held in September 2012 and again the MPLA wins and dos Santos remains president. A census will be taken in May 2014, there are 24.3 million Angolans. In 2015 and 2016, Angola occupied a seat on the UN Security Council. In August 2017, the MPLA wins the election, despite complaints from the opposition. In 2018, Jao Laurenco will become president of the MPLA in addition to being president of Angola. In 2019 there will be unrest due to fuel shortages, a fairly absurd situation for this large oil-exporting country.

Population

Population AngolaPhoto: Jorg brino Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International no changes made

More than 29 million people live in Angola (2017). The population density is low and amounts to approximately 24 inhabitants per square kilometer.
Natural population growth is 3.52%. (2017)
Birth rate per 1000 inhabitants is 44.20 (2017)
Mortality rate per 1000 inhabitants is 9.20 (2017)
Life expectancy is 60.2 years. (men 58.2 and women 61.8 years (2017)

Population composition:
The population consists of nine large Bantu groups (with the exception of a Portuguese minority in Luanda and a small group Kung nomads) These nine Bantu groups are divided into about a hundred tribes, of which the Ovimbundu and Bakongo are the largest.

Language

Portuguese Language MapPhoto: Public domain

Officially Portuguese is the language of Angola. Especially in urban areas, nearly 85% of the population speaks Portuguese. Furthermore, many Bantu languages (including Chowke, Umbundu, Kikongo, Kmbundu and Oshiwambo) are spoken. Angolan radio has programs in 14 different languages.

Religion

Angola Church in LuandaPhoto: Valentina Buj Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic no changes made

Most of the inhabitants of Angola adhere to indigenous religions. Rural communities in the country practice animism and other indigenous religions. There is also a small Muslim community. There are also Christians, divided into Roman Catholics (38%) and Protestants (15%). The largest Protestant communities are Methodists, Baptists, Congregationalists (United Church of Christ) and members of the Assemblies of God.

Society

State structure

Angola Assembleia NacionalPhoto: Fabio Vanin Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

The Republic of Angola is a constitutional republic with a parliament (Assembleia Nacional, or National Assembly). The Angolan Constitution dates from 11 November 1975 and, after the last revision in August 1992, provides for a multiparty system. The legal system is based on Portuguese and common law. The independence of the judiciary is enshrined in the constitution.

The Republic of Angola (until August 1992, People's Republic of Angola) is nominally a parliamentary multiparty democracy, but in practice it is a republic with a strong presidential system . President JoséEduardo dos Santos, who has been in power for 26 years now, is commander in chief of the armed forces. He appoints (and dismisses) the other members of the cabinet, he appoints the judges of the Supreme Court and calls elections. Administratively, the country is divided into 18 provinces, headed by a governor, assisted by a vice-governor. Both are appointed by the president.

Politics

Angola Administrative divisionPhoto: Golbez Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

At the MPLA's fifth party congress in December 2003, President Dos Santos was re-elected party leader. The current Minister of Public Administration, António Pitra Neto, was elected Vice-President of the MPLA by Congress, a new post established by the same Congress. The Dos-Santos loyalist (and previously tipped as his successor) João Lourenço was replaced as Secretary General of the MPLA by the Vice-President of the National Assembly, Julião Mateus Paulo. Although President Dos Santos declared in 2001 that he would not hold a new term of office, he is expected to re-run for the next presidential election.

For the current political situation, see chapter history.

Economy

Before independence in 1975, the economy of Angola was doing quite well. The commercial farms were mainly owned by white farmers. With the departure of the Portuguese and the start of the civil war, the economy almost collapsed. From 1975 to 1990, the Angolan government followed a Marxist planned economy, with about 25% of companies eventually falling into state hands. In 1990, the Programa de Recuperação Económica (economic recovery program) was launched to promote a more market-oriented policy. However, reforms barely got off the ground.

Angola ExportPhoto: R Haussman, Cesar Hidalgo, et. al CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported no changes made

Given its wealth of natural resources such as oil, gold and diamonds, Angola receives sufficient income to be able to pursue a proper socio-economic policy. Despite this, the economy has not been able to develop sustainably due to poor economic policy, opaque public finances and insufficiently trained staff. The high economic growth appears to be mainly caused by the rapidly increasing oil production and rising oil prices. The budget deficit is expected to increase further. The labor productivity in the country is low and the unemployment rate high. As a result of the civil war, the infrastructure has been all but destroyed and millions of landmines are leaving much of the country inaccessible.

Angola Offshore Oil ExtractionPhoto: Paulo César Santos in the public domain

Under pressure from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other donors, the Angolan government commissioned KMPG to draw up an analysis of the oil industry (and its revenues) in Angola. KPMG's critical investigation report has been made public and a contract has been signed with the World Bank-affiliated International Finance Corporation (IFC) on the independent audit of the national accounts. In addition, openness has also been sought on the signing bonus for the new oil drilling contract concluded between Sonangol (Angolan state oil company) and Chevron Texaco. Nevertheless, the transparency of public spending remains very problematic. This makes the relationship with the IMF difficult.

Holidays and Sightseeing

Angola BeachPhoto: jlrsousa Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic no changes made

Angola has a lot to offer to tourists, especially the coast and nature are interesting. The big problem at the moment is the chronic shortage of hotel beds, as a result of which they are almost always occupied and are sold at such a high price. In addition, most hotels do not meet the standards of the Western tourist and should be demolished or restored at a rapid pace.

Luanda Angola FPhoto: David Stanley ; Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

The Angolan government also sees that tourism can become a major source of income, and has stimulated the construction of new hotels and the restoration of existing hotels in recent years. The football tournament for the Africa Cup, organized in 2010, accelerated this process.
A Ministry for Hotels and Tourism has even been set up, which has, among other things, taken on the development of the 1,600 kilometer long Atlantic coastline. The capital Luanda already has a number of well-known beaches: Ilha do Cabo, Mussulo, Palmeirinhas, Corimba and Santiago;in Benguela these are Morena, Restinga, Caóta, Caotina, Naia Azul and Baia Farta.

Angola Iona National ParkPhoto: Alfred Weidinger Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic no changes made

Climatically speaking, the coast can be visited all year round, but especially in the dry season, between May and September, many tourists can be found here. For nature lovers, a visit to the nature parks Kwando, Cangandala, Quissama, Kameia, Bicuar, Mupa and Iona is recommended.

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Sources


BBC - Country Profiles

CIA - World Factbook

Elmar Landeninformatie

Oyebade, Adebayo / Culture and customs of Angola
Greenwood Press

Stead, Mike / Angola
Lonely Planet

Last updated August 2021
Copyright: Team Landenweb